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CBD and the Immune System - Can Cannabidiol Support the Immune System?

Colds, herpes, allergies - many complaints in everyday life, we lead back to the fact that our immune system does not work optimally. Sometimes it seems to let us down, sometimes it reacts stronger than it should. As scientific studies show, CBD could interfere with oil regulation: How does our immune system work?Our organism comes into daily contact with bacteria, viruses and environmental toxins. If foreign cells enter the body, we need an instance that distinguishes friend from enemy. This task is done by the human immune system. It's not a conduit network like our bloodstream and our nerve cells, but rather a communication network that involves cells of different types. They provide each other with information about potentially threatening substances and the state of health of tissues and organs. If a substance enters the system that is identified as hostile, certain signal substances (cytokines) initially trigger an inflammatory process. This alerts other immune cells, such as our leukocytes or killer cells. They have the ability to destroy and consume pathogens. Even infected body cells are destroyed by the defense cells. As efficient as it sounds - the human immune system is not always working optimally. Allergies arise when the immune system overreacts to certain plant substances. In contrast, autoimmune diseases develop when defense cells falsely attack their own body cells. Immune system and cannabinoids - where is the connection?Receptors, so "docking" for cannabinoids are located on many cells of the immune system. T cells, neutrophil granocytes, monocytes, NK cells and B cells have CB2 receptors to which cannabinoids can bind. If they do so, they attract other immune cells to a damaged site in the organism through chemical signals. At the same time, however, cannabinoids are also responsible for balancing the immune system and avoiding overreactions. This task is usually done by our endogenous cannabinoids, the endocannabinoids. However, if there are deficits or imbalances, herbal cannabinoids such as CBD can be helpful. The optimal function of our immune system depends directly on the balance of our endocannabinoid system. If the CB1 receptors in our body are strongly inhibited, the immune system may be impaired in its function. If the organism does not have endocannabinoids such as anandamide and 2-AG, it may lead to diseases such as irritable bowel, fibromyalgia or migraine. Scientists believe that supplementing herbal cannabinoids in these cases can promote good health. Source: CBD und das Immunsystem – kann Cannabidiol die Immunabwehr unterstützen? Apr 29,2019. Dostupné z: https://fivebloom.de/blogs/cbd-news/cbd-und-das-immunsystem Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

The endocannabinoid system: How THC works in the body

The beginningsModern cannabinoid research, which began about 50 years ago, was initially initiated to understand the effect of an illicit drug. After the chemistry of the plant and the pharmacological and psychological effects of THC were at least partially understood in the 60s and 70s, the field of research changed. From the mid-80s, research into the mode of action of THC and other cannabinoids in the hemp plant in the body and thus the discovery of the endocannabinoid system began. It soon became clear that this body's regulatory system is involved in many bodily functions.In 1964, the complete elucidation of the chemical structure of the delta-9-THC of the hemp plant was achieved. Approximately 30 years later, the first endogenous cannabinoids were discovered, arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA) in 1992, and arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in 1995. Since then, research on the effects of endocannabinoids on human health and disease has become more widespread.Endocannabinoid receptorsIn 1987, an American research group was able to show that there are specific binding sites in the brain for THC. Their distribution in the brain is consistent with the pharmacological properties of THC and other (synthetic) cannabinoids that cause psychic effects. In 1990, it was finally possible to decode the chemical structure of the first cannabinoid receptor in the brain. A short time later, a second cannabinoid receptor was detected in the spleen.The cannabinoid-1 receptorOriginally it had been thought that the CB1 receptor (cannabinoid-1 receptor) was found only in the central nervous system, so it was considered a brain cannabinoid receptor. However, it occurs in many organs. The CB1 receptor is one of the most common receptors in the brain. The highest concentrations are found, among others, in the basal ganglia of the brain, which play a role in the coordination of movements, or in the hippocampus, which is important for the conversion of short-term information into long-term memory contents or for spatial orientation. CB1 receptors are found in many regions that play an important role in sensory perception (taste, smell, touch, hearing), mental performance, and motivation. For example, when CB1 receptors in the brain are activated by THC, sensory perception increases. In this way, the taste and smell of food and listening to music intensifies.In contrast, there are no CB1 receptors in the brainstem responsible, inter alia, for the control of respiration and the cardiovascular system. Today it is assumed that there are no deaths from overdose of cannabis or THC in healthy persons, because the functions of the brainstem can not be significantly affected by such an overdose.The protective function of the CB1 receptorCannabinoid 1 receptors are located at the end of nerve cells, where a signal is passed through the gap between two nerve cells from one nerve cell to another. The most important function of the CB1 receptors in the nervous system is the inhibition of excessive signal transmission by messenger substances in the brain, so-called neurotransmitters. Activation of CB1 receptors inhibits overactivity of all neurotransmitters in the brain (glutamate, serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, etc.). Thus, the endocannabinoid system has multiple protective functions against over-excitement in the central nervous system and helps to balance the activity of the brain. This explains the broad spectrum of action of THC or cannabis. When THC binds to CB1 receptors, too much activity is inhibited in the pain control circuits of the brain, thereby relieving pain. If neurotransmitter activity is too high in regions responsible for nausea and vomiting, activation of the CB1 receptor may reduce this increased activity. By similar mechanisms, muscle spasticity, epileptic seizures, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, hyperactivity and other disease symptoms are attenuated by activation of the endocannabinoid system.The cannabinoid 2 receptorOriginally it was thought that CB2 receptors only occur in the immune system outside the brain. However, they were eventually detected throughout the central nervous system, especially in microglial cells, albeit at a lower concentration than CB1 receptors. Microglial cells are crucial for brain immune defense.The body of humans and other mammals has a highly developed immune system that protects it from attack by viruses, bacteria and other potentially harmful external influences and aims to prevent, mitigate and repair the damage. The endocannabinoid system is part of this protective mechanism via its CB2 receptors.Endogenous cannabinoidsThe discovery of cannabinoid receptors suggested that there are endogenous substances that bind to these receptors. In fact, such an endocannabinoid was first detected in 1992. Its discoverers called it anandamide from the Sanskrit word "Ananda" for bliss and "amide" because of its chemical structure. In 1995, a second endocannabinoid, 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol) was discovered. These two endocannabinoids are best researched so far. Today it is assumed that about 200 substances that resemble the discovered endocannabinoids in their chemical structure.Unlike most messenger substances (neurotransmitters) in the brain, they are not produced by the nerve cell, which transmits a signal to another nerve cell, but by the nerve cell that receives the signal. If the signal, ie the concentration of the neurotransmitters, is too large, endocannabinoids are increasingly formed which, via the activation of CB1 receptors, reduce this excessive neurotransmitter activity.Different endocannabinoids can bind not only to cannabinoid receptors, but also to a putative CB3 receptor, the GPR55 receptor, vanilloid receptors, and other receptors.Proteins for the formation and degradation of end cannabinoidsThe proteins responsible for the synthesis of endocannabinoids have so-called N-acyltransferase (NAT), N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase (NAPE-PLD) or diaclglycirollipase (DAGL). The most important protein for the degradation of anandamide is fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and for the degradation of 2-AG monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL).Functions of the endocannabinoid system in the brainThe endocannabinoid system plays a role in the brain in anxiety and depression, in the regeneration of nerve cells, and it affects the reward system of the brain. It affects our mental capacity, ability to learn and memory. In this context, the eradication of unpleasant experiences by the endocannabinoid system is utilized in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. The effects of endocannabinoids in the brain are mainly mediated via CB1 receptors, but also in part via CB2 receptors on glial cells.Many studies show that activators of the CB1 receptor, such as THC, affect short-term memory. This effect can be prevented by high doses of CBD.Interestingly, however, memory loss could be reduced with age by activating the endocannabinoid system. For example, mice lacking CB1 receptors showed accelerated age-related mental performance deficits. They also lost important nerve cells in the hippocampus, which was accompanied by inflammation of the nerve cells. These findings suggest that CB1 receptors in the hippocampus may protect against age-related decline in mental performance.conclusionThe endocannabinoid system, with its endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors, and proteins responsible for the formation and degradation of endocannabinoids such as anandamide and 2-AG, has central biological functions in the central nervous system and in many other organs. Disruptions to the normal functioning of this system can lead to corresponding disorders of organ function. In diseases, a specific effect on the endocannabinoid system may be useful, for example, by inhibiting the degradation of endocannabinoids or by the administration of herbal cannabinoids such as THC.There is also evidence that certain diseases such as migraine, epilepsy or irritable bowel syndrome are associated with reduced activity of the endocannabinoid system. One speaks of Endocannabinoidmangel illnesses. The ingestion of plant cannabinoids might then compensate for this decreased activity. Source: GROTENHERMEN, Dr. Franjo. Das Endocannabinoidsystem: Wie THC seine Wirkung im Körper ausübt.15 Aug, 2016,Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/thc/das-endocannabinoidsystem-wie-thc-seine-wirkung-im-koerper-ausuebt Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/ 

Cannabis use increases the chances of survival after a heart attack

The heart attack, also called myocardial infarction, is one of the leading causes of death in Germany. Without treatment, it always leads to death, so quick action is vital. The cause is a sudden occlusion of the coronary arteries. The heart muscle is then no longer supplied with blood, the heart can even stop beating.As a result, it can happen that the heart muscle dies. If a treatment is late, it may be that partial death of the heart muscle cells leads to the fact that the pumping function of the heart and its resilience is limited in the long term. The worst symptoms are acute chest pain and dread. Cannabis may not save a person from a heart attack, but consumption seems to have a positive effect on survival rates following infarction.A particular risk factor: Many cannabis users also use tobaccoThe National Inpatient Sample database includes data from thousands of patients who have been admitted to clinics in the United States. For one study, the data from more than 161,000 patients hospitalized for a heart attack were analyzed. Of these, 4224 indicated that they consume cannabis, 78.3 percent of the consumers were male, 21.7 percent were female. 71 percent of cannibis users also smoked tobacco, compared with only 49 percent of non-consumers. Tobacco smoke is one of the largest cardiovascular risk factors. Nevertheless, on average, consumers reported better health developments during hospitalization.Despite tobacco smoke, cannabis users recovered faster after a heart attackThe researchers explain the better recovery of cannabis users through both mental and physical factors. For example, increased consumer relaxation could improve blood flow to the heart, which could counteract cardiomyocyte death. The psychological handling of the hospital stay could have something to do with it. A positive mood always supports the physical recovery through physiological reactions to the mental state.Cannabis use makes hospitalization shorter and cheaperOverall, analysis of NIS data showed that cannabis users are more likely to recover from their heart attack than non-users. With an average of 4.2 days, they had a shorter hospital stay, ie non-consumers, who had to spend an average of 4.8 days in the hospital. Incidentally, they also cause lower costs to the healthcare system, $ 43,800 for the stay compared to $ 50,900 for patients who do not consume cannabis. In addition, the likelihood of death during hospitalization is six times lower among consumers.Can cannabis be used for cardiac patients?The need for further studies is beyond doubt with the results of the NIS data collection. With other evidence pointing to the benefits of cannabis for the health and function of the heart, more in-depth research might one day capture the context and make cannabis targeted for cardiac patients. Since the results of the analyzes are largely based on long-term consumers, a general legalization of cannabis, both medically and as a stimulant, would be a public health benefit.Source:GLASMANN, Dieter Klaus. Cannabiskonsum erhöht die Überlebenschancen nach einem Herzinfarkt., 22 Sep, 2019,Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabismedizin-allgemein/cannabiskonsum-erhoeht-die-ueberlebenschancen-nach-einem-herzinfarkt/Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/