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Whether acute or chronic - CBD relieves pain

Pain has many facesIn Germany, several million people live with chronic pain. The published numbers fluctuate. Ten to 25 percent of all Germans are exposed to regular pain - this corresponds to about eight to 20 million people. The statistics are therefore relatively inaccurate, because many pain patients do not go to the doctor with their suffering. Some are afraid of being laughed at, others have given up their fight because they have not gotten better after a long odyssey, yet others do not want to be permanently dependent on harmful medicines.The reasons for pain are so complex that they can not all be listed here. Medicine distinguishes between acute and chronic pain. Acute pain occurs suddenly and does not last very long. They are even useful because they signal to the body that something is wrong. Only then can the cause be identified and remedied. Chronic pain starts from a minimum of three to six months. They are no longer useful, but reduce the quality of life of the person affected. Frequently a chronic pain is caused by inflammation, tension, chronic illness or nerve damage. Even acute pain can be attributed to such causes. However, they are also often caused by injuries - both internal and external - or illnesses. If the cause of acute pain is not resolved quickly, there is a risk that acute pain will turn into chronic pain. In addition, strong, persistent pain sensitizes the body to further pain. The nerves react "exaggerated" in the episode, even if the cause of the initial pain has already been eliminated. Whether a pain becomes chronic or not depends, among other things, on the patient's disposition, family environment and mental state.CBD has been shown to be effective against pain in several studies. The Cannabinoid combats several causes of pain, rather than simply suppressing the feeling of pain, the latter also belongs to the repertoire of cannabidiol.CBD fights painIn tissue injury, CBD increases the concentration of anandamide in the body. This occurs through the interaction of the cannabinoid with the receptors of the human endocannabinoid system. Ananadamide is an endogenous endocannabinoid that is directly produced by the body, which directly affects the pain. The more anandamide in the organism or around the injured area, the better the pain relief. Ananadamide binds to the CB1 receptor (cannabinoid-binding receptor) and to the TRPV1 (a vanilloid) receptor, where it immediately combats the pain. This finding was made by scientists in China in 2010, when they performed experiments on mice.CBD helps against inflammationInflammation is often the cause of pain. Inflamed tissue increases the number of free radicals. These are dangerous for the body, as they have, among other things, the property of damaging cells. CBD is an antioxidant. In this function, it has a similar effect to vitamins A, C and E: they trap free radicals and thus render them harmless.In addition, CBD also has an anti-inflammatory effect per se. For example, a study by GWPharmaceuticals showed that CBD's properties can help fight inflammatory conditions in the intestinal tract, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes and nausea.Researchers at the University of Mississippi found that CBD reduces oxidative stress and helps fight inflammation. Many other studies - such as those of the scientists of the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda (USA) - all led to the same result: Cannabidiol inhibits inflammation. In Bethesda, researchers also confirmed that CBD works effectively against neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain is caused by dysfunction or nerve injury and can sometimes be very severe.CBD protects the nervesCannabidiol not only works against neuropathic pain, but has been shown to protect against the death of nerve cells - such as ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, Huntington's disease and other chronic nervous disorders. The neuroprotective (nerve-protective) effect of CBD has been demonstrated both in living organisms and in test tubes. Apparently, anandamide and 2-AG (2-arachidonylglycerol, another endocannabinoid) play an important role. In a traumatic brain injury, substances are released that can lead to secondary brain damage. In 2002 Mechoulem et al. Annanadamide and 2-AG can inhibit the action of harmful substances. The endocannabinoid system together with the cannabinoids thus takes over a protective function here. As described above, CBD contributes to the proliferation of anandamide in the body and thus protects the nerves. CBD relaxes the body and works against stressWhile the cannabinoid THC works primarily on the psyche, CBD has a relaxing and regulating effect on the body. Cannabidiol has an anticonvulsant effect, which is why it is sometimes used to combat epilepsy. Tense muscles often cause pain such as back, head, menstrual and other pains. But also CBD has positive effects on the psyche: It can be used well for the treatment of depression and schizophrenia. But it also helps against insomnia and stress. Stress is the cause of many pain disorders. Anyone who manages to reduce his stress often notices an accompanying pain relief. CBD combats the causesIn addition to inflammation, stress, tension and nerve disorders, CBD can be used against many other diseases. To name just a few:sleep disordersBurnoutanxiety disordersepilepsyschizophreniaNausea and vomitingDependence on addictive substancesParkinsonCrohn's diseasearthritisdifferent cancersspasticityasthmaCBD not only combats the pain as symptoms of disease, but acts - as a variety of different studies have revealed - against the causes themselves. For this reason alone, cannabidiol is likely to be a healthy alternative to the synthetic drugs of the pharmaceutical giants in the long term. These usually only suppress the pain. For the fight against causes additional medicines must be taken. Most painkillers and most prescription medicines, which are not natural but man-made, are harmful to the liver and kidneys - especially if taken over a long period of time. CBD, on the other hand, does not have a great health-endangering side-effect because it comes from nature and is very similar to human cannabinoids. Unfortunately, CBD research is still in its infancy. There are first drugs based on CBD. Overall, however, the science knows too little about the exact modes of action of cannabidiol. Questions such as "What helps CBD?" Could already be clarified well. But on the "How exactly does CBD?" There are only insufficient results. In the future, CBD is likely to play a bigger role in medicine - the current state of knowledge suggests strongly. Even though there are only very few CBD drugs worldwide so far, every human being in this country has the opportunity to treat themselves with CBD oil and other CBD products. CBD is not prescription, therefore legally available. For safety, always consult a doctor who is familiar with CBD. Application and dosage vary from person to person. In principle, with a little patience, everyone will find the right dose for themselves, as long as he starts small and slowly increases it until the desired effect begins. This makes CBD a good supplement to conventional pain therapy. With a bit of luck, some pain patients can even replace their existing funds with CBD altogether. A trial (under medical supervision) would be worth it. Source: SOMMER, Kathrin. Ob akut oder chronisch – CBD lindert Schmerzen.  13 Apr 2018 Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/cbd-in-der-medizin/ob-akut-oder-chronisch-cbd-lindert-schmerzen/ Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

CBD in cosmetics - how well does cannabidiol affect our skin?

the biggest appeal features - no wonder we're ready to invest a lot in effective skin care products. Care products that contain CBD extracts such as CBD oil are currently emerging as a new trend in the cosmetics market. Are you just a marketing gimmick? On the contrary, medical studies hope that cannabidiol could help with skin problems: Which cosmetics with CBD are there?Almost the entire spectrum of personal care products you will also get today with CBD offset: from shampoo, on the lip balm to creams and ointments. The latter are advantageous because they are not washed out or washed off like soap, but let the valuable ingredients of the contained CBD extract penetrate into the skin. In addition to cannabidiol, ointments and creams naturally also contain ingredients which give the respective product its consistency and scent. Make sure that natural fats such as shea butter, mango butter or cocoa butter are used. They moisturize the skin and have a moisturizing effect. As fragrances, producers of high-quality products use natural essential oils, which in turn supply valuable terpenes. Quality products can be recognized by the fact that a CBD full spectrum extract forms the basis and neither artificial preservatives nor fragrances are processed. Vitamin E, on the other hand, is a natural preservative in CBD cosmetics that protects both our products and our skin from oxidation damage. Is CBD absorbed through the skin?Like all cannabinoids, CBD is a lipophilic substance that dissolves well in oils and fats. Therefore, it also combines with the human skin fat and is absorbed through the epidermis in the metabolism. Studies show that skin gives CBD 10 times more permeability than THC.  But can CBD also influence the organism through this passage? Preclinical experiments with animals show that CBD also has high efficacy via the transdermal route. For example, a gel containing cannabidiol in arthritic rats reduced joint swelling and pain and improved their mobility. In another experiment, CBD mitigated an addictive behavior induced by stress as an ointment in the experimental animals.  Also, pharmaceutical companies want to use the transdermal uptake of CBD in their products in the future: The Canadian manufacturer Cannabis Science announced to develop a CBD patch that will help patients with fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain in the future. How does CBD affect the skin? Because CBD is anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory, it could primarily help people who suffer from inflammatory skin conditions. Researchers see above all possibilities in the treatment of acne. Because of the activation of the vanilloid receptor type 4 CBD demonstrably inhibits the activity of the sebaceous cells in the sebaceous glands, called sebocytes.  In addition, it also has an inhibitory effect on cells of the epidermis, which are responsible for the formation of the horny layer. This could help people with psoriasis, whose complaints are caused by excessive activity of horn-forming keratinocytes. Finally, patients with severe skin diseases already benefit from CBD in practice. Case reports of sufferers of rare skin conditions, such as epidermolysis bullosa, show that their symptoms significantly decreased with cannabidiol therapy. Itching, sore and scarring, blisters and the limitations of mobility decreased so much that some patients could even do without opioid analgesics.  Source: CBD in Kosmetik – wie gut wirkt Cannabidiol auf unsere Haut? Apr 25,2019. Dostupné z: https://fivebloom.de/blogs/cbd-news/cbd-kosmetik Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

CBD and the Immune System - Can Cannabidiol Support the Immune System?

Colds, herpes, allergies - many complaints in everyday life, we lead back to the fact that our immune system does not work optimally. Sometimes it seems to let us down, sometimes it reacts stronger than it should. As scientific studies show, CBD could interfere with oil regulation: How does our immune system work?Our organism comes into daily contact with bacteria, viruses and environmental toxins. If foreign cells enter the body, we need an instance that distinguishes friend from enemy. This task is done by the human immune system. It's not a conduit network like our bloodstream and our nerve cells, but rather a communication network that involves cells of different types. They provide each other with information about potentially threatening substances and the state of health of tissues and organs. If a substance enters the system that is identified as hostile, certain signal substances (cytokines) initially trigger an inflammatory process. This alerts other immune cells, such as our leukocytes or killer cells. They have the ability to destroy and consume pathogens. Even infected body cells are destroyed by the defense cells. As efficient as it sounds - the human immune system is not always working optimally. Allergies arise when the immune system overreacts to certain plant substances. In contrast, autoimmune diseases develop when defense cells falsely attack their own body cells. Immune system and cannabinoids - where is the connection?Receptors, so "docking" for cannabinoids are located on many cells of the immune system. T cells, neutrophil granocytes, monocytes, NK cells and B cells have CB2 receptors to which cannabinoids can bind. If they do so, they attract other immune cells to a damaged site in the organism through chemical signals. At the same time, however, cannabinoids are also responsible for balancing the immune system and avoiding overreactions. This task is usually done by our endogenous cannabinoids, the endocannabinoids. However, if there are deficits or imbalances, herbal cannabinoids such as CBD can be helpful. The optimal function of our immune system depends directly on the balance of our endocannabinoid system. If the CB1 receptors in our body are strongly inhibited, the immune system may be impaired in its function. If the organism does not have endocannabinoids such as anandamide and 2-AG, it may lead to diseases such as irritable bowel, fibromyalgia or migraine. Scientists believe that supplementing herbal cannabinoids in these cases can promote good health. Source: CBD und das Immunsystem – kann Cannabidiol die Immunabwehr unterstützen? Apr 29,2019. Dostupné z: https://fivebloom.de/blogs/cbd-news/cbd-und-das-immunsystem Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

CBD in allergies - can cannabidiol soothe the immune system?

Some of them are happy when trees and flowers are blooming in spring, while others would rather escape to the North Pole. In particular, hay fever sufferers can hardly enjoy the warm season, because they bring along with the pollen Schniefnasen, watery eyes and sneezing attacks. But also food allergies; House dust allergies and incompatibilities with chemicals make everyday life difficult for those affected. What happens in the body during allergies, such as CBD oil could increase the well-being of allergy sufferers, you will find out here: What are allergies?In an allergy, the human organism reacts to individual substances of its environment (allergens) with a strong immune response. In this case, pro-inflammatory substances such as e.g. Released histamine that cause typical discomfort. The physical symptoms then express themselves in:red and irritated eyesirritated nasal mucosahay feverSneezeto coughallergic asthmadigestive problemsSkin irritation and rashEczema and eczemaFor example, allergens are taken via the respiratory tract, as is the case with widespread hay fever. According to recent surveys, about 14.5 percent of all Germans suffer from respiratory ailments during their heyday. In addition, allergens can also enter the body through food or through direct skin contact. What is the usual therapy for allergies?Here are two approaches: The first is based on drugs that reduce the production of the inflammatory histamine in the body, so-called antihistamines. These preparations are effective and are available over the counter. However, they are sometimes associated with unpleasant side effects, especially with severe fatigue. In addition, there is the possibility of hyposensitization for allergy sufferers. In this case, the person concerned receives low-dose injections of the corresponding allergen, in order to slowly get the body used to the substance. How does CBD affect our immune system? The human endocannabinoid system and the immune system are closely related. After all, CB2 receptors to which cannabinode can bind are located on the important cells of the immune system, for example the T cells. Here, cannabinoids can regulate how many pro-inflammatory signaling substances are released during an immune response. Researchers in the animal model of asthma demonstrated that this regulatory effect can have a beneficial effect on allergic reactions. Treatment with CBD was able to significantly reduce the pro-inflammatory signaling, various interleukins and tumor necrosis factor alpha in the lung tissue of the experimental animals. The authors of the study are in favor of CBD as a potential future therapeutic for the inflammatory processes in asthma. Surveys in dermatology, however, see opportunities in CBD to treat atopic dermatitis and contact allergies. Finally, scientists in the animal model of arthritis have observed that cannabidiol can also regulate autoimmune responses by reducing the presence of proinflammatory signaling in the synovial fluid.  Which CBD products are suitable for an allergy?Dietary supplements with CBD are freely available in Germany and do not bring the risk of side effects. Unlike with the use of antihistamines, allergy sufferers do not have to worry about drowsiness. It is known from scientific experiments that CBD is absorbed well via the oral mucosa and via the transdermal route. In principle, allergy sufferers can therefore use CBD oil or CBD balm. When products are applied to the skin, it is important that there are no ingredients that can cause allergies. Ideal are CBD balms, which contain only natural fats such as shea butter or mango butter and do without chemical preservatives and fragrances. Even less risk of allergies exists in CBD oils based on MCT oils. They are dripped under the tongue on the oral mucosa to ensure optimal absorption of the ingredients in the organism. Beginners should begin with a 5 to 10 percent CBD oil picking and a dosage of 3 drops twice a day. Source: CBD bei Allergien – kann Cannabidiol das Immunsystem beruhigen?  May 2, 2019. Dostupné z: https://fivebloom.de/blogs/cbd-news/cbd-bei-allergien-oder-heuschnupfen Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

Does CBD help stomach and intestines? Cannabidiol and the digestive tract

A good gut feeling is not only important in the figurative sense: The fact that the digestive tract works smoothly is essential for general well-being. But there is a problem here: it is estimated that 29 percent of the European population experience recurring indigestion; A total of 400,000 patients in Germany suffer from inflammatory bowel disease. Could CBD oil help alleviate the symptoms here? Below you will learn how the endocannabinoid system interacts with the digestive tract and what recent studies on CBD have found in bowel disease: What makes a healthy digestive system?The health of our intestinal tract is not only our business, but also that of trillions of microorganisms. Their job is to help digestion, neutralize potential toxins, make vitamins and communicate with the immune system. If bacterial colonization in the intestine is disturbed by pathological conditions, chronic intestinal inflammation and even mental illness can be the result. Animal experiments have already shown how the change in the intestinal flora in mice results in increased anxiety and a tendency to depression. Also in patients with a post-traumatic stress disorder, changes were detected in the occurrence of special intestinal bacteria. No wonder then that our intestinal tract is also referred to by some scientists as the "gut brain". A gut feeling would therefore not be a vague feeling, but may be the result of the collective intelligence of trillions of intestinal bacteria. How do cannabinoids affect the intestine?The human endocannabinoid system also extends to our digestive organs. CB1 receptors are located in the stomach and intestine, where they allow (endo) cannabinoids to control appetite and saturation. In addition, they affect motility, i. the movements that maneuver our food through the digestive tract. Finally, the anti-inflammatory potential of some cannabinoids could have a positive effect on the intestinal mucosa and correlate with a healthy intestinal flora: In which intestinal diseases could CBD support well-being?A well-known chronic intestinal disease is irritable bowel syndrome. Physicians are still uncertain about his cause - but his symptoms severely affect the quality of life of those affected: diarrhea, flatulence, cramps and constipation are the result. Stress, intolerance to certain foods or taking hormone supplements such as the "pill" can cause relapses. Scientists are currently working on a theory that explains chronic pain in irritable bowel syndrome, which can hardly be attributed to external factors, by a lack of endocannabinoids (Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency Syndrome). [2] Here, an intake of herbal cannabinoids such as CBD could possibly have a positive effect and reduce painful discomfort. This thesis is supported by numerous reports of irritable bowel patients, whose quality of life CBD could increase. CBD and inflammatory bowel disease and CBDIn inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, there are inflammations of the intestinal tract, which cause bumpy severe discomfort. Doctors suspect the triggers in an autoimmune reaction. The fact that cannabis preparations can alleviate the symptoms is well known. [3] In addition, a 2011 study examined the mechanisms by which CBD, as a single substance, could exert a positive influence on inflammatory processes in the gut: it has been shown to control the activation of enteric glial cells. In turn, these cells increasingly release growth factors and inflammatory signaling substances (cytokines). In excess they can cause inflammation. The modulating capabilities of CBD could mitigate these processes.  Source: Hilft CBD Magen und Darm? Cannabidiol und der Verdauungstrakt. Apr,22 2019. Dostupné z: https://fivebloom.de/blogs/cbd-news/hilft-cbd-magen-und-darm Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

The function of endocannabinoids

Endogenous cannabinoids are produced in the body. Also exogenous phytocannabinoids from the cannabis plant or synthetic cannabinoids from the laboratory can be supplied to the body from the outside. These exogenous cannabinoids attach to the cannabinoid receptors and thus have an effect. First of all, this is about the function of endocannabinoids in our body, though the subject could certainly fill a book. In our body, thousands or even more functions take place side by side at the same time. There are organs in the body, but there are also small organs in many cells that perform functions. All this needs to be controlled so that it does not become "too little" or "too much". Simplified, it can be said that endocannabinoids in the organism take over a very important part of these "control functions" and that we thus find a "healthy center". This applies, on the one hand, to unconscious biochemical processes with which, for example, the feeling of hunger or sleep can be controlled. Of course, we realize that we are getting hungry or sleepy and react to these important impulses. But even with the feeling of pain, anxiety, aggression or mood, endocannabinoids bring us back to the center. Endocannabinoids than the other neurotransmittersThere is an incredible abundance of chemical substances in every higher organism, all of which have their functions. Neurotransmitters are messengers. A nerve cell releases them to trigger a reaction in another nerve cell. When a nerve cell perceives something or takes damage, it releases the appropriate neurotransmitter, which then triggers the impulse in the next nerve cell to pass on the information. Thus, information about the nerve tracts from the little toe can penetrate into the brain with almost no loss of time. Normal neurotransmitters are formed and released as needed. Endocannabinoids are formed as needed and distributed at the same time. Excessive impulses can not only drive pain patients to madness. Pain, just like anxiety or stress, is something very positive at first because it alerts the organism. After all, this must act quickly and quickly notice the problem. However, if too much pain, anxiety or stress, the organism can no longer follow the right actions on the impulse. Those who simply freeze in fear, respond to a dangerous moment usually not right. Because of the endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors have the property of not only relaying the message from the impulse. You can also answer the impulse. So you can soothe the "source of stimulation", so that the over-stimulation fails and the organism can react more meaningful to the impulse. Endocannabinoids are therefore very important messengers, with which body functions or sensations take place, but no excess occurs. Endocannabinoids in healthIn health, "mediocrity" is, as it were, the prerequisite for being healthy and staying healthy. Much just wants to be detrimental to a defect or excess and is not questionable. This applies when eating, e.g. for fat, without it just being not. So it has to be a certain amount of fat, which composition should bring a certain quality for the body. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are much healthier than the saturated fatty acids. Too much fat is unhealthy at some point, too little too. Many illnesses come from a "too little" or "too much". If the endocannabinoid system is disturbed and too few endocannabinoids are formed, they can bring the organism less well into the healthy center. Many diseases are due to search "imbalances" in the endocannabinoid system or cause search "imbalances". Here it can help if the right exogenous cannabinoids are added to the endocannabinoid system. There are also special living conditions. A painful back pain or a part of the body has been operated on and hurts since then. It can therefore be about traumatizing events. The actual healthy person takes damage over time, where his actually healthy endocannabinoid system does not lead to the middle anymore. Again, it may help if the right exogenous cannabinoids are supplied. Physical or mental pain can be reduced. Effects of EndocannabinoidsThe areas of action of the endocannabinoids actually comprise the entirety of the unconscious and the conscious bodily functions. Whether it is about mood, metabolism, digestion, appetite, sleeping, pain, the elimination of inflammation, immune functions or memory: without endocannabinoids, the organism can not find the mediocrity. Endocannabinoids are somewhat superior to the exogenous cannabinoids in that they are released in the right places in the body. So they are work in the right places. If exogenous cannabinoids are added, they are absorbed into the bloodstream via the digestive system, the lung or under the tongue. In this way, they reach the whole organism and therefore affect the whole organism. In some situations this can be detrimental. Source: BRUNGERT, Robert. Die Funktion der Endocannabinoide17 Feb, 2018,Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/die-funktion-der-endocannabinoide/ Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

The endocannabinoid system: How THC works in the body

The beginningsModern cannabinoid research, which began about 50 years ago, was initially initiated to understand the effect of an illicit drug. After the chemistry of the plant and the pharmacological and psychological effects of THC were at least partially understood in the 60s and 70s, the field of research changed. From the mid-80s, research into the mode of action of THC and other cannabinoids in the hemp plant in the body and thus the discovery of the endocannabinoid system began. It soon became clear that this body's regulatory system is involved in many bodily functions.In 1964, the complete elucidation of the chemical structure of the delta-9-THC of the hemp plant was achieved. Approximately 30 years later, the first endogenous cannabinoids were discovered, arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA) in 1992, and arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in 1995. Since then, research on the effects of endocannabinoids on human health and disease has become more widespread.Endocannabinoid receptorsIn 1987, an American research group was able to show that there are specific binding sites in the brain for THC. Their distribution in the brain is consistent with the pharmacological properties of THC and other (synthetic) cannabinoids that cause psychic effects. In 1990, it was finally possible to decode the chemical structure of the first cannabinoid receptor in the brain. A short time later, a second cannabinoid receptor was detected in the spleen.The cannabinoid-1 receptorOriginally it had been thought that the CB1 receptor (cannabinoid-1 receptor) was found only in the central nervous system, so it was considered a brain cannabinoid receptor. However, it occurs in many organs. The CB1 receptor is one of the most common receptors in the brain. The highest concentrations are found, among others, in the basal ganglia of the brain, which play a role in the coordination of movements, or in the hippocampus, which is important for the conversion of short-term information into long-term memory contents or for spatial orientation. CB1 receptors are found in many regions that play an important role in sensory perception (taste, smell, touch, hearing), mental performance, and motivation. For example, when CB1 receptors in the brain are activated by THC, sensory perception increases. In this way, the taste and smell of food and listening to music intensifies.In contrast, there are no CB1 receptors in the brainstem responsible, inter alia, for the control of respiration and the cardiovascular system. Today it is assumed that there are no deaths from overdose of cannabis or THC in healthy persons, because the functions of the brainstem can not be significantly affected by such an overdose.The protective function of the CB1 receptorCannabinoid 1 receptors are located at the end of nerve cells, where a signal is passed through the gap between two nerve cells from one nerve cell to another. The most important function of the CB1 receptors in the nervous system is the inhibition of excessive signal transmission by messenger substances in the brain, so-called neurotransmitters. Activation of CB1 receptors inhibits overactivity of all neurotransmitters in the brain (glutamate, serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, etc.). Thus, the endocannabinoid system has multiple protective functions against over-excitement in the central nervous system and helps to balance the activity of the brain. This explains the broad spectrum of action of THC or cannabis. When THC binds to CB1 receptors, too much activity is inhibited in the pain control circuits of the brain, thereby relieving pain. If neurotransmitter activity is too high in regions responsible for nausea and vomiting, activation of the CB1 receptor may reduce this increased activity. By similar mechanisms, muscle spasticity, epileptic seizures, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, hyperactivity and other disease symptoms are attenuated by activation of the endocannabinoid system.The cannabinoid 2 receptorOriginally it was thought that CB2 receptors only occur in the immune system outside the brain. However, they were eventually detected throughout the central nervous system, especially in microglial cells, albeit at a lower concentration than CB1 receptors. Microglial cells are crucial for brain immune defense.The body of humans and other mammals has a highly developed immune system that protects it from attack by viruses, bacteria and other potentially harmful external influences and aims to prevent, mitigate and repair the damage. The endocannabinoid system is part of this protective mechanism via its CB2 receptors.Endogenous cannabinoidsThe discovery of cannabinoid receptors suggested that there are endogenous substances that bind to these receptors. In fact, such an endocannabinoid was first detected in 1992. Its discoverers called it anandamide from the Sanskrit word "Ananda" for bliss and "amide" because of its chemical structure. In 1995, a second endocannabinoid, 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol) was discovered. These two endocannabinoids are best researched so far. Today it is assumed that about 200 substances that resemble the discovered endocannabinoids in their chemical structure.Unlike most messenger substances (neurotransmitters) in the brain, they are not produced by the nerve cell, which transmits a signal to another nerve cell, but by the nerve cell that receives the signal. If the signal, ie the concentration of the neurotransmitters, is too large, endocannabinoids are increasingly formed which, via the activation of CB1 receptors, reduce this excessive neurotransmitter activity.Different endocannabinoids can bind not only to cannabinoid receptors, but also to a putative CB3 receptor, the GPR55 receptor, vanilloid receptors, and other receptors.Proteins for the formation and degradation of end cannabinoidsThe proteins responsible for the synthesis of endocannabinoids have so-called N-acyltransferase (NAT), N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase (NAPE-PLD) or diaclglycirollipase (DAGL). The most important protein for the degradation of anandamide is fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and for the degradation of 2-AG monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL).Functions of the endocannabinoid system in the brainThe endocannabinoid system plays a role in the brain in anxiety and depression, in the regeneration of nerve cells, and it affects the reward system of the brain. It affects our mental capacity, ability to learn and memory. In this context, the eradication of unpleasant experiences by the endocannabinoid system is utilized in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. The effects of endocannabinoids in the brain are mainly mediated via CB1 receptors, but also in part via CB2 receptors on glial cells.Many studies show that activators of the CB1 receptor, such as THC, affect short-term memory. This effect can be prevented by high doses of CBD.Interestingly, however, memory loss could be reduced with age by activating the endocannabinoid system. For example, mice lacking CB1 receptors showed accelerated age-related mental performance deficits. They also lost important nerve cells in the hippocampus, which was accompanied by inflammation of the nerve cells. These findings suggest that CB1 receptors in the hippocampus may protect against age-related decline in mental performance.conclusionThe endocannabinoid system, with its endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors, and proteins responsible for the formation and degradation of endocannabinoids such as anandamide and 2-AG, has central biological functions in the central nervous system and in many other organs. Disruptions to the normal functioning of this system can lead to corresponding disorders of organ function. In diseases, a specific effect on the endocannabinoid system may be useful, for example, by inhibiting the degradation of endocannabinoids or by the administration of herbal cannabinoids such as THC.There is also evidence that certain diseases such as migraine, epilepsy or irritable bowel syndrome are associated with reduced activity of the endocannabinoid system. One speaks of Endocannabinoidmangel illnesses. The ingestion of plant cannabinoids might then compensate for this decreased activity. Source: GROTENHERMEN, Dr. Franjo. Das Endocannabinoidsystem: Wie THC seine Wirkung im Körper ausübt.15 Aug, 2016,Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/thc/das-endocannabinoidsystem-wie-thc-seine-wirkung-im-koerper-ausuebt Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/ 

Cannabis use increases the chances of survival after a heart attack

The heart attack, also called myocardial infarction, is one of the leading causes of death in Germany. Without treatment, it always leads to death, so quick action is vital. The cause is a sudden occlusion of the coronary arteries. The heart muscle is then no longer supplied with blood, the heart can even stop beating.As a result, it can happen that the heart muscle dies. If a treatment is late, it may be that partial death of the heart muscle cells leads to the fact that the pumping function of the heart and its resilience is limited in the long term. The worst symptoms are acute chest pain and dread. Cannabis may not save a person from a heart attack, but consumption seems to have a positive effect on survival rates following infarction.A particular risk factor: Many cannabis users also use tobaccoThe National Inpatient Sample database includes data from thousands of patients who have been admitted to clinics in the United States. For one study, the data from more than 161,000 patients hospitalized for a heart attack were analyzed. Of these, 4224 indicated that they consume cannabis, 78.3 percent of the consumers were male, 21.7 percent were female. 71 percent of cannibis users also smoked tobacco, compared with only 49 percent of non-consumers. Tobacco smoke is one of the largest cardiovascular risk factors. Nevertheless, on average, consumers reported better health developments during hospitalization.Despite tobacco smoke, cannabis users recovered faster after a heart attackThe researchers explain the better recovery of cannabis users through both mental and physical factors. For example, increased consumer relaxation could improve blood flow to the heart, which could counteract cardiomyocyte death. The psychological handling of the hospital stay could have something to do with it. A positive mood always supports the physical recovery through physiological reactions to the mental state.Cannabis use makes hospitalization shorter and cheaperOverall, analysis of NIS data showed that cannabis users are more likely to recover from their heart attack than non-users. With an average of 4.2 days, they had a shorter hospital stay, ie non-consumers, who had to spend an average of 4.8 days in the hospital. Incidentally, they also cause lower costs to the healthcare system, $ 43,800 for the stay compared to $ 50,900 for patients who do not consume cannabis. In addition, the likelihood of death during hospitalization is six times lower among consumers.Can cannabis be used for cardiac patients?The need for further studies is beyond doubt with the results of the NIS data collection. With other evidence pointing to the benefits of cannabis for the health and function of the heart, more in-depth research might one day capture the context and make cannabis targeted for cardiac patients. Since the results of the analyzes are largely based on long-term consumers, a general legalization of cannabis, both medically and as a stimulant, would be a public health benefit.Source:GLASMANN, Dieter Klaus. Cannabiskonsum erhöht die Überlebenschancen nach einem Herzinfarkt., 22 Sep, 2019,Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabismedizin-allgemein/cannabiskonsum-erhoeht-die-ueberlebenschancen-nach-einem-herzinfarkt/Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

Can cannabis protect the liver from alcohol damage?

This is a medical recommendation for the use of alcohol. By regularly exceeding this daily dose serious health consequences are threatened because alcohol is toxic to the liver cells. Excessive consumption causes the liver to become inflamed, tissue scarred, and dangerous cirrhosis can be the result, as well as high blood pressure, strokes, liver disease and liver cancer.Is the combination of alcohol and cannabis more dangerous than the individual substances?Recently, scientists from the University of Massachusetts Medical School and the INRS Armand-Frappier Research Center, led by Drs. Terence Bukong on the effects of long-term mixed cannabis and alcohol use on the liver. The 2018 study included studies in about 320,000 people who had a longer history of both substances. And although one would think that combined consumption would necessarily increase the negative consequences for the body, the results of the investigations show that it is surprisingly different in this case.Cannabinoids like CBD inhibit the cause of liver diseaseBukong and his team found that in people who consume both alcohol and cannabis, the risk of alcohol-related liver disease is lower. And the more cannabis people consume, the stronger this effect is. The researchers explain these amazing results with the anti-inflammatory effect that cannabis, and especially cannabidiol (CBD) has. Older studies suggest that cannabinoid receptors in the liver are able to prevent or treat liver disease. The activation of these receptors by cannabis reduces the inflammation of the liver cells at an early stage. This slows down the progressive damage caused by alcohol.The research on the mixed consumption of alcohol and cannabis goes into the next roundDr. However, Bukong warns against understanding the research findings as an invitation to excessive mixed drinking. Because many historical data were collected through interviews, there is no information on the quality and drug concentration of cannabis that the participants consumed at that time. So far, there are no clinical studies that have tracked the effects of mixed consumption virtually in real time. Bukong's research group is already working to find out which cannabinoids and combinations of cannabinoids have the best medical effect on liver disease.Coffee and cannabis prevent scarring in liver tissueDespite all precaution and caution, as a result of their research, researchers find that cannabis users are less likely to suffer from alcohol-related liver damage, the least to long-term consumers. Also good for preventing scarring in the tissues of the liver should be drinking two to three cups of black coffee per day. Why this is so, has not been explored until today. Source:KLAUS GLASMANN, Dieter. Kann Cannabis die Leber vor Alkohol-Schäden schützen? 28 Mai, 2019. Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabismedizin-allgemein/kann-cannabis-die-leber-vor-alkohol-schaden-schuetzen/Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/