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CBD as a versatile remedy in sports

But not only in medicine promises CBD new treatment options. The properties of cannabidiol can be used, for example, for faster regeneration or performance enhancement in sport. Prominent examples from the US could establish CBD as a supplement and remedy in sport. What is cannabidiol?Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of over several hundred cannabinoids in the hemp plant and the second best known besides THC. Especially medical users became aware of the therapeutic properties of CBD. CBD has no psychoactive effect and can even mitigate the high produced by THC. Nowadays you can find varieties on the market, which were bred especially for their high CBD content and more and more seed banks jump on the CBD train. With their Super Silver Haze CBD, Greenhouse Seed Company released a popular CBD version of the popular classic with a THC: CBD ratio of 1: 1. In addition, the breeders of CBD crew inspired many patients with their variety CBD Therapy, which has a THC: CBD ratio of 1:20 (!) And thus has a particularly high medical potential. However, CBD can not only be consumed in the form of flowers. Many manufacturers offer CBD oils in different dosages or creams with CBD from organically grown hemp plants. A very pure form of cannabinoid is CBD crystals, a white powder produced by extraction with CO2.  CBD in sportsAs already mentioned, CBD has a very high medical potential, which can also be used profitably in sport. Many hobby and competitive athletes report that CBD increases their focus when taken before a training session and thus they can achieve better performance. The stress-relieving effect of CBD can increase mental performance, thus making exercises or units more accurate. This reduces the risk of injury and over-exertion. Excessive physical stress often causes muscle pain or painful muscle tension. CBD binds, inter alia, to the TRPV-1 receptor, which is responsible for pain perception, inflammation and the regulation of temperature. As a result, CBD can relieve pain such as muscle soreness or tension to get fit for the next session. In addition, cannabidiol stimulates the adenosine receptor and therefore plays an important role in cardiovascular function and blood circulation. Thus, we have arrived at another huge advantage of CBD in the application in the sport. Namely the faster regeneration. The relaxing effect can serve as Muskelrelachsans and shorten the recovery phase between training sessions. By stimulating the blood flow, the muscles are supplied with more oxygen again and can be more stressed or recover better. Even nausea after a hard workout can be treated with cannabidiol. Prominent examples from the USAAbove all, professional top athletes are under constant stress from training and competitions and expose their bodies to extreme stress. Not infrequently a serious injury is the result of a auspicious career. Not to mention the huge sums of money used in professional sports. In the American Fottballliga NFL one has therefore always resorted to strong painkillers such as Percocet and Vicodin, to suppress the pain of an injury. Not infrequently complain players after taking on stomach ache, nausea and / or fatigue. Not to mention the danger of dependence, which is almost inevitable with such strong resources and regular intake. Former quarterback Jake Plummer is now campaigning for allowable use of CBD for recreational purposes in the NFL. With the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect cannabidiol is the natural alternative to strong (prescription) analgesics and no side effects or the risk to become dependent. According to a 2011 Washington University study in St. Louis, 52% of retired NFL players resorted to opiates during their careers. This means more than half of the pharmaceutical industry's former professionals fall victim in the US. It is estimated that at least 50% of NFL active players defend themselves against the abuse of potent painkillers and treat themselves with some form of cannabis as a medicine. In the American Basketball League (NBA), it even estimated an 80%. At least some of the players seem to have understood the problem and are switching to the natural alternative. Also in other sports the positive effects of CBD seem to have spread. Last year, UFC fighter Nate Diaz appeared at a press conference after a fight with a vaporizer. When asked about this, Diaz explained that it is cannabidiol and continues: "It helps against pain and inflammation and supports the healing process. It makes your life a better place. " Application of CBDCBD can not only be consumed in the form of flowers. There are CBD oils with different concentrations, CBD creams for application on the skin or the already mentioned CBD crystals. Either way, CBD not only has the potential for professional athletes to relieve pain after hard physical exertion and is THE natural alternative to strong painkillers that have a lot of side effects and the risk of dependency. It remains to be seen what will emerge in the future in this area, but with advancing useful research and prominent representatives, this wonderful plant may soon be used in sport as an effective means of relieving pain and increasing performance. Source: BOEDEFELD, Christian. CBD als vielseitig einsetzbares Heilmittel im Sport.. Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/cbd-in-der-medizin/cbd-als-vielseitig-einsetzbares-heilmittel-im-sport/ Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

What is cannabidiol?

Cannabidiol (abbreviated: CBD) is the second most abundant cannabinoid in hemp, after the main active ingredient THC. It therefore belongs to the phytocannabinoids and occurs mainly in the hemp with an amount of up to 2% in the flowers.Cannabis indica-dominant strains have a higher CBD content than strains dominated by cannabis sativa.CBD taken alone does not cause any intoxication - it is not essentially psychotropic (with the exception of the slightly sedating effect) - and no relevant (psychic) ​​side effects.The individual effects of the substance, as well as those of other cannabinoids, have not been fully explored. So there is room for discovery of other medical effects. The effect in isolated form is also to be considered differently than in combination with many other substances of the cannabis plant (for example over 100 cannabinoids alone, as well as flavonoids, terpenes, terpenoids).CBD mediates its effects via both the CB1 and CB2 receptors. These are receptors of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), are activated or inhibited by the body's own cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) and influence many physiological processes; Among other things, the EC system has an involvement in diseases of the metabolism, disorders of the nervous system and the psyche, pain and inflammatory processes, cancers and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, to name just a few examples.CBD can be understood as mediating the effects of THC, as it enhances the analgesic, mind-altering and euphoric properties of THC; On the other hand, it acts as an antagonist by inhibiting the increase in appetite caused by THC, increasing the heart rate as well as any unpleasant psychological effects (increased anxiety, anxiety, paranoia).For a long time, cannabis breeders were primarily concerned with keeping the CBD content as low as possible in order to achieve a better "high". So it is in many popular cannabis strains at less than one percent. Meanwhile, however, there is a clear trend of medical use in the direction of high-CBD strains, so CBD-rich varieties, which come up with a significant medical potential, without really psychedelic effect.The effect here is more towards plättend, body-accentuated and pleasantly soothing on the psyche. Therefore, CBD-rich cannabis strains (e.g., in ratio (CBD-THC) 1: 1 or even 2: 1) are ideally suited for treatment of, for example, muscle spasms, sleep disorders, and anxiety.CBD is not regulated in Germany, Austria and Switzerland and is absolutely legal in its pure form. Source: FÖRSTER, Hendrik. Was ist Cannabidiol? 13 Jan, 2015. Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/cbd-in-der-medizin/was-ist-cannabidiol/ Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/ 

The endocannabinoid system: How THC works in the body

The beginningsModern cannabinoid research, which began about 50 years ago, was initially initiated to understand the effect of an illicit drug. After the chemistry of the plant and the pharmacological and psychological effects of THC were at least partially understood in the 60s and 70s, the field of research changed. From the mid-80s, research into the mode of action of THC and other cannabinoids in the hemp plant in the body and thus the discovery of the endocannabinoid system began. It soon became clear that this body's regulatory system is involved in many bodily functions.In 1964, the complete elucidation of the chemical structure of the delta-9-THC of the hemp plant was achieved. Approximately 30 years later, the first endogenous cannabinoids were discovered, arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA) in 1992, and arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in 1995. Since then, research on the effects of endocannabinoids on human health and disease has become more widespread.Endocannabinoid receptorsIn 1987, an American research group was able to show that there are specific binding sites in the brain for THC. Their distribution in the brain is consistent with the pharmacological properties of THC and other (synthetic) cannabinoids that cause psychic effects. In 1990, it was finally possible to decode the chemical structure of the first cannabinoid receptor in the brain. A short time later, a second cannabinoid receptor was detected in the spleen.The cannabinoid-1 receptorOriginally it had been thought that the CB1 receptor (cannabinoid-1 receptor) was found only in the central nervous system, so it was considered a brain cannabinoid receptor. However, it occurs in many organs. The CB1 receptor is one of the most common receptors in the brain. The highest concentrations are found, among others, in the basal ganglia of the brain, which play a role in the coordination of movements, or in the hippocampus, which is important for the conversion of short-term information into long-term memory contents or for spatial orientation. CB1 receptors are found in many regions that play an important role in sensory perception (taste, smell, touch, hearing), mental performance, and motivation. For example, when CB1 receptors in the brain are activated by THC, sensory perception increases. In this way, the taste and smell of food and listening to music intensifies.In contrast, there are no CB1 receptors in the brainstem responsible, inter alia, for the control of respiration and the cardiovascular system. Today it is assumed that there are no deaths from overdose of cannabis or THC in healthy persons, because the functions of the brainstem can not be significantly affected by such an overdose.The protective function of the CB1 receptorCannabinoid 1 receptors are located at the end of nerve cells, where a signal is passed through the gap between two nerve cells from one nerve cell to another. The most important function of the CB1 receptors in the nervous system is the inhibition of excessive signal transmission by messenger substances in the brain, so-called neurotransmitters. Activation of CB1 receptors inhibits overactivity of all neurotransmitters in the brain (glutamate, serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, etc.). Thus, the endocannabinoid system has multiple protective functions against over-excitement in the central nervous system and helps to balance the activity of the brain. This explains the broad spectrum of action of THC or cannabis. When THC binds to CB1 receptors, too much activity is inhibited in the pain control circuits of the brain, thereby relieving pain. If neurotransmitter activity is too high in regions responsible for nausea and vomiting, activation of the CB1 receptor may reduce this increased activity. By similar mechanisms, muscle spasticity, epileptic seizures, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, hyperactivity and other disease symptoms are attenuated by activation of the endocannabinoid system.The cannabinoid 2 receptorOriginally it was thought that CB2 receptors only occur in the immune system outside the brain. However, they were eventually detected throughout the central nervous system, especially in microglial cells, albeit at a lower concentration than CB1 receptors. Microglial cells are crucial for brain immune defense.The body of humans and other mammals has a highly developed immune system that protects it from attack by viruses, bacteria and other potentially harmful external influences and aims to prevent, mitigate and repair the damage. The endocannabinoid system is part of this protective mechanism via its CB2 receptors.Endogenous cannabinoidsThe discovery of cannabinoid receptors suggested that there are endogenous substances that bind to these receptors. In fact, such an endocannabinoid was first detected in 1992. Its discoverers called it anandamide from the Sanskrit word "Ananda" for bliss and "amide" because of its chemical structure. In 1995, a second endocannabinoid, 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol) was discovered. These two endocannabinoids are best researched so far. Today it is assumed that about 200 substances that resemble the discovered endocannabinoids in their chemical structure.Unlike most messenger substances (neurotransmitters) in the brain, they are not produced by the nerve cell, which transmits a signal to another nerve cell, but by the nerve cell that receives the signal. If the signal, ie the concentration of the neurotransmitters, is too large, endocannabinoids are increasingly formed which, via the activation of CB1 receptors, reduce this excessive neurotransmitter activity.Different endocannabinoids can bind not only to cannabinoid receptors, but also to a putative CB3 receptor, the GPR55 receptor, vanilloid receptors, and other receptors.Proteins for the formation and degradation of end cannabinoidsThe proteins responsible for the synthesis of endocannabinoids have so-called N-acyltransferase (NAT), N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase (NAPE-PLD) or diaclglycirollipase (DAGL). The most important protein for the degradation of anandamide is fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and for the degradation of 2-AG monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL).Functions of the endocannabinoid system in the brainThe endocannabinoid system plays a role in the brain in anxiety and depression, in the regeneration of nerve cells, and it affects the reward system of the brain. It affects our mental capacity, ability to learn and memory. In this context, the eradication of unpleasant experiences by the endocannabinoid system is utilized in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. The effects of endocannabinoids in the brain are mainly mediated via CB1 receptors, but also in part via CB2 receptors on glial cells.Many studies show that activators of the CB1 receptor, such as THC, affect short-term memory. This effect can be prevented by high doses of CBD.Interestingly, however, memory loss could be reduced with age by activating the endocannabinoid system. For example, mice lacking CB1 receptors showed accelerated age-related mental performance deficits. They also lost important nerve cells in the hippocampus, which was accompanied by inflammation of the nerve cells. These findings suggest that CB1 receptors in the hippocampus may protect against age-related decline in mental performance.conclusionThe endocannabinoid system, with its endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors, and proteins responsible for the formation and degradation of endocannabinoids such as anandamide and 2-AG, has central biological functions in the central nervous system and in many other organs. Disruptions to the normal functioning of this system can lead to corresponding disorders of organ function. In diseases, a specific effect on the endocannabinoid system may be useful, for example, by inhibiting the degradation of endocannabinoids or by the administration of herbal cannabinoids such as THC.There is also evidence that certain diseases such as migraine, epilepsy or irritable bowel syndrome are associated with reduced activity of the endocannabinoid system. One speaks of Endocannabinoidmangel illnesses. The ingestion of plant cannabinoids might then compensate for this decreased activity. Source: GROTENHERMEN, Dr. Franjo. Das Endocannabinoidsystem: Wie THC seine Wirkung im Körper ausübt.15 Aug, 2016,Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/thc/das-endocannabinoidsystem-wie-thc-seine-wirkung-im-koerper-ausuebt Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/ 

Cannabis use increases the chances of survival after a heart attack

The heart attack, also called myocardial infarction, is one of the leading causes of death in Germany. Without treatment, it always leads to death, so quick action is vital. The cause is a sudden occlusion of the coronary arteries. The heart muscle is then no longer supplied with blood, the heart can even stop beating.As a result, it can happen that the heart muscle dies. If a treatment is late, it may be that partial death of the heart muscle cells leads to the fact that the pumping function of the heart and its resilience is limited in the long term. The worst symptoms are acute chest pain and dread. Cannabis may not save a person from a heart attack, but consumption seems to have a positive effect on survival rates following infarction.A particular risk factor: Many cannabis users also use tobaccoThe National Inpatient Sample database includes data from thousands of patients who have been admitted to clinics in the United States. For one study, the data from more than 161,000 patients hospitalized for a heart attack were analyzed. Of these, 4224 indicated that they consume cannabis, 78.3 percent of the consumers were male, 21.7 percent were female. 71 percent of cannibis users also smoked tobacco, compared with only 49 percent of non-consumers. Tobacco smoke is one of the largest cardiovascular risk factors. Nevertheless, on average, consumers reported better health developments during hospitalization.Despite tobacco smoke, cannabis users recovered faster after a heart attackThe researchers explain the better recovery of cannabis users through both mental and physical factors. For example, increased consumer relaxation could improve blood flow to the heart, which could counteract cardiomyocyte death. The psychological handling of the hospital stay could have something to do with it. A positive mood always supports the physical recovery through physiological reactions to the mental state.Cannabis use makes hospitalization shorter and cheaperOverall, analysis of NIS data showed that cannabis users are more likely to recover from their heart attack than non-users. With an average of 4.2 days, they had a shorter hospital stay, ie non-consumers, who had to spend an average of 4.8 days in the hospital. Incidentally, they also cause lower costs to the healthcare system, $ 43,800 for the stay compared to $ 50,900 for patients who do not consume cannabis. In addition, the likelihood of death during hospitalization is six times lower among consumers.Can cannabis be used for cardiac patients?The need for further studies is beyond doubt with the results of the NIS data collection. With other evidence pointing to the benefits of cannabis for the health and function of the heart, more in-depth research might one day capture the context and make cannabis targeted for cardiac patients. Since the results of the analyzes are largely based on long-term consumers, a general legalization of cannabis, both medically and as a stimulant, would be a public health benefit.Source:GLASMANN, Dieter Klaus. Cannabiskonsum erhöht die Überlebenschancen nach einem Herzinfarkt., 22 Sep, 2019,Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabismedizin-allgemein/cannabiskonsum-erhoeht-die-ueberlebenschancen-nach-einem-herzinfarkt/Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/