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Whether acute or chronic - CBD relieves pain

Pain has many facesIn Germany, several million people live with chronic pain. The published numbers fluctuate. Ten to 25 percent of all Germans are exposed to regular pain - this corresponds to about eight to 20 million people. The statistics are therefore relatively inaccurate, because many pain patients do not go to the doctor with their suffering. Some are afraid of being laughed at, others have given up their fight because they have not gotten better after a long odyssey, yet others do not want to be permanently dependent on harmful medicines.The reasons for pain are so complex that they can not all be listed here. Medicine distinguishes between acute and chronic pain. Acute pain occurs suddenly and does not last very long. They are even useful because they signal to the body that something is wrong. Only then can the cause be identified and remedied. Chronic pain starts from a minimum of three to six months. They are no longer useful, but reduce the quality of life of the person affected. Frequently a chronic pain is caused by inflammation, tension, chronic illness or nerve damage. Even acute pain can be attributed to such causes. However, they are also often caused by injuries - both internal and external - or illnesses. If the cause of acute pain is not resolved quickly, there is a risk that acute pain will turn into chronic pain. In addition, strong, persistent pain sensitizes the body to further pain. The nerves react "exaggerated" in the episode, even if the cause of the initial pain has already been eliminated. Whether a pain becomes chronic or not depends, among other things, on the patient's disposition, family environment and mental state.CBD has been shown to be effective against pain in several studies. The Cannabinoid combats several causes of pain, rather than simply suppressing the feeling of pain, the latter also belongs to the repertoire of cannabidiol.CBD fights painIn tissue injury, CBD increases the concentration of anandamide in the body. This occurs through the interaction of the cannabinoid with the receptors of the human endocannabinoid system. Ananadamide is an endogenous endocannabinoid that is directly produced by the body, which directly affects the pain. The more anandamide in the organism or around the injured area, the better the pain relief. Ananadamide binds to the CB1 receptor (cannabinoid-binding receptor) and to the TRPV1 (a vanilloid) receptor, where it immediately combats the pain. This finding was made by scientists in China in 2010, when they performed experiments on mice.CBD helps against inflammationInflammation is often the cause of pain. Inflamed tissue increases the number of free radicals. These are dangerous for the body, as they have, among other things, the property of damaging cells. CBD is an antioxidant. In this function, it has a similar effect to vitamins A, C and E: they trap free radicals and thus render them harmless.In addition, CBD also has an anti-inflammatory effect per se. For example, a study by GWPharmaceuticals showed that CBD's properties can help fight inflammatory conditions in the intestinal tract, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes and nausea.Researchers at the University of Mississippi found that CBD reduces oxidative stress and helps fight inflammation. Many other studies - such as those of the scientists of the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda (USA) - all led to the same result: Cannabidiol inhibits inflammation. In Bethesda, researchers also confirmed that CBD works effectively against neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain is caused by dysfunction or nerve injury and can sometimes be very severe.CBD protects the nervesCannabidiol not only works against neuropathic pain, but has been shown to protect against the death of nerve cells - such as ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, Huntington's disease and other chronic nervous disorders. The neuroprotective (nerve-protective) effect of CBD has been demonstrated both in living organisms and in test tubes. Apparently, anandamide and 2-AG (2-arachidonylglycerol, another endocannabinoid) play an important role. In a traumatic brain injury, substances are released that can lead to secondary brain damage. In 2002 Mechoulem et al. Annanadamide and 2-AG can inhibit the action of harmful substances. The endocannabinoid system together with the cannabinoids thus takes over a protective function here. As described above, CBD contributes to the proliferation of anandamide in the body and thus protects the nerves. CBD relaxes the body and works against stressWhile the cannabinoid THC works primarily on the psyche, CBD has a relaxing and regulating effect on the body. Cannabidiol has an anticonvulsant effect, which is why it is sometimes used to combat epilepsy. Tense muscles often cause pain such as back, head, menstrual and other pains. But also CBD has positive effects on the psyche: It can be used well for the treatment of depression and schizophrenia. But it also helps against insomnia and stress. Stress is the cause of many pain disorders. Anyone who manages to reduce his stress often notices an accompanying pain relief. CBD combats the causesIn addition to inflammation, stress, tension and nerve disorders, CBD can be used against many other diseases. To name just a few:sleep disordersBurnoutanxiety disordersepilepsyschizophreniaNausea and vomitingDependence on addictive substancesParkinsonCrohn's diseasearthritisdifferent cancersspasticityasthmaCBD not only combats the pain as symptoms of disease, but acts - as a variety of different studies have revealed - against the causes themselves. For this reason alone, cannabidiol is likely to be a healthy alternative to the synthetic drugs of the pharmaceutical giants in the long term. These usually only suppress the pain. For the fight against causes additional medicines must be taken. Most painkillers and most prescription medicines, which are not natural but man-made, are harmful to the liver and kidneys - especially if taken over a long period of time. CBD, on the other hand, does not have a great health-endangering side-effect because it comes from nature and is very similar to human cannabinoids. Unfortunately, CBD research is still in its infancy. There are first drugs based on CBD. Overall, however, the science knows too little about the exact modes of action of cannabidiol. Questions such as "What helps CBD?" Could already be clarified well. But on the "How exactly does CBD?" There are only insufficient results. In the future, CBD is likely to play a bigger role in medicine - the current state of knowledge suggests strongly. Even though there are only very few CBD drugs worldwide so far, every human being in this country has the opportunity to treat themselves with CBD oil and other CBD products. CBD is not prescription, therefore legally available. For safety, always consult a doctor who is familiar with CBD. Application and dosage vary from person to person. In principle, with a little patience, everyone will find the right dose for themselves, as long as he starts small and slowly increases it until the desired effect begins. This makes CBD a good supplement to conventional pain therapy. With a bit of luck, some pain patients can even replace their existing funds with CBD altogether. A trial (under medical supervision) would be worth it. Source: SOMMER, Kathrin. Ob akut oder chronisch – CBD lindert Schmerzen.  13 Apr 2018 Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/cbd-in-der-medizin/ob-akut-oder-chronisch-cbd-lindert-schmerzen/ Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

Cannabis in the fight against epilepsy

CBD in anxiety disordersA number of case reports and studies show that CBD can reduce anxiety. In a study from 2017 by the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil, administration of CBD reduced anxiety in healthy individuals in a dose-dependent manner. The subjective anxiety was reduced with 300 mg CBD, but not with 100 and 900 mg CBD in a frightening situation (public speaking test). The mean dose was thus the most effective. The same researchers from Brazil investigated the effect of CBD on patients with generalized social anxiety disorder in a test that simulated speaking in a public situation. Three groups were compared: 12 healthy volunteers as a control group without medication; 12 patients with anxiety who received a single dose of CBD (600 mg) and 12 who received placebo. Previous treatment with CBD significantly reduced anxiety, mental disabilities and discomfort during speech. CBD also reduced the mental tension before the speech.At the Psychedelic Science Conference in San Francisco, April 19-24, 2017, a large case series of 136 patients was presented demonstrating that CBD, even in low doses of 40 to 50 mg, could be useful in treating anxiety.. Cannabis has both pro- and anti-convulsive effectsAt the congress of the DGN (German Society of Neurology) 2016 in Mannheim, however, Professor Heidrun Potschka warned against eating phytocannabinoids in an uncontrolled manner in order to combat epilepsy. According to experience reports of some epilepsy patients, they would often have had a seizure after eating a joint. In these cases, cannabis was thus proconvulsive, spasm-promoting. As a justification, she first gave the current state of science: The cannabinoid-binding receptor CB1, which is part of the ECS, inhibits overactive synapses via a feedback loop. CB1 is presynaptic. If the overactive synapses release too many neurotransmitters, the postsynapse causes the release of endocannabinoids, which bind to the CB1 receptor and thus restrict the production of neurotransmitters. This process happens in both inhibitory and excitatory connections. Potschka believes that it would therefore depend on the current state of the brain whether the CB1 agonist THC would be more spasm-promoting or antispasmodic. Exactly to this topic is not yet known. It should not be left unmentioned that Potschka is employed at the Pharmacological Institute of the LMU Munich and may well represent her opinion from a pharmacological point of view and with corresponding interests. The cannabis plant not only has THC as an active ingredient, but also many other compounds that can have a positive or negative effect on convulsions. For the most part, science is still in the dark. Currently, in epilepsy research, the focus is not primarily on THC but on its antagonist, cannabidiol. There were consistently positive results with CBD. Cannabis: Studies show positive effects in epilepsyVarious studies worldwide - both human and animal - have now shown that the intake of cannabinoids counteract the onset of epileptic seizures. In addition, it has been shown that it is not only acute epileptic seizures that can be reduced by the administration of cannabinoids, but that the herbal active ingredients can also provide effective protection against the development of epilepsy. In addition, cannabinoids are neuroprotective. That means they protect the nerves. In addition, they are likely to interfere with excessive release of glutamate, which can damage the brain and be released during an epileptic seizure. Especially CBD is currently on everyone's lips when it comes to effective drugs for epilepsy - even if THC can demonstrably prevent seizures. The side effects of CBD are very manageable. Especially drowsiness and loss of appetite should be mentioned here. Another positive side-effect of CBD in the case of epilepsy is that it may potentiate the effects of conventional epilepsy drugs such as carbamazepine, diazepam, felbamate, gabapentin, phenobarbital, topiramate and valproic acid. The results of a study strongly suggest this. However, in-depth knowledge is still pending. It would be conceivable in the future that CBD could be used in drug form specifically for such reinforcement. Currently, cannabidiol is mainly as so-called "orphan drug", so approved as an orphan drug, and only for a limited number of epilepsy forms, such as: Dravet syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and tuberous sclerosis. Orphan drugs are subject to strong regulatory restrictions and may only be marketed for very rare diseases. Since CBD is available legally and without a prescription, as long as it is not offered in the form of a drug, but as a kind of dietary supplement, a large number of epilepsy patients who have treated themselves with cannabidiol report positive effects of the herbal active ingredient. The incidence of seizures has decreased in many cases with the use of CBD, which is consistent with findings from other studies on CBD and epilepsy. Outlook: Cannabinoids as an alternative medication for epilepsyDespite less critical voices in part opposing the use of cannabinoids in the treatment of epilepsy, science continues to provide hope-rich insights into cannabis and epilepsy. The first step towards the approval of drugs containing cannabinoids has already been made. Given the current research efforts, a considerable number of additional medicines may well be expected in the not too distant future. Whether the cannabinoids are then synthetically produced or taken from nature remains to be seen. However, it is clear that phytocannabinoids, which are not produced in the laboratory, are better tolerated than man-made compounds. With the active ingredients of the cannabis plant might even make a breakthrough in epilepsy treatment. It is - as so often - not least a question of the various interests that meet in the health system, whether and in what form or with what emphasis and success ultimately the affected people help with new drugs is offered. In the meantime, there is still a lot of room for self-help. The legally available CBD - whether in the form of oil, capsules, tablets or tinctures - is (still) freely available, so that every epilepsy patient can supplement his treatment. Of course, such proprietary therapies should always consult a knowledgeable physician and be mindful of the good (bio) quality of the CBD product. Anyone who does so, should be justified with a little patience justified hope for improvement. Source: SOMMER, Kathrin. Cannabis im Kampf gegen Epilepsie 29 march 2018. Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/cbd-in-der-medizin/cannabis-im-kampf-gegen-epilepsie Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/   

Endogenous cannabinoids

Our organism, a criminal?The production of cannabis or the intoxicating tetrahydrocannabinol is prohibited in Germany, with exceptions. Our body forms endogenous cannabinoids. The anandamide discovered in 1992 is very similar to the THC. Is our organism a criminal? Does the mother behave irresponsibly when giving birth to her child, although breast milk contains endogenous cannabinoids? These questions simply remain unanswered and continue to focus on endogenous cannabinoids. Every higher living organism has an endocannabinoid system in which there are endogenous cannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors. These cannabinoid receptors can also dock with exogenous cannabinoids that are formed outside the body. However, cannabinoids formed in the body are called "endogenous". Endogenous is used within, exogenously outside of the body and as terms also in other areas of medicine. In 1992, the first endogenous cannabinoid was discovered with "anandamide", meanwhile also "2-arachidonylglycerol", "2-arachidonylglyceryl ether" and "O-arachidonylethanolamide" were discovered. There may be dozens of other endogenous cannabinoids that our body produces itself. These are messengers that dock to the cannabinoid receptors and trigger a reaction. Exogenous and endogenous cannabinoidsAmong the exogenous cannabinoids there are once the phytocannabinoids and the synthetic or semi-synthetic / artificial cannabinoids. The endogenous cannabinoids are always natural products as a product within our body. Here, however, as an organism, there are no great possibilities to form less or more of these endogenous cannabinoids, e.g. to achieve a more pleasant way of working. In the case of exogenous cannabinoids, however, it is possible to take them in any amount, if they are available in any quantity. Since marijuana always contains several cannabinoids at the same time, it would hardly be possible for normal users to take more of one cannabinoid without also including the other contained cannabinoids. However, if today's world wants it, then all of this would be possible because the cannabis strains can be optimized for breeding goals. On the other hand, the active ingredients can be extracted from the flowers as pure substances and then dosed very precisely. The difference in the bodyWhen exogenous cannabinoids are taken, they are taken up by the body via the lungs, the intestine, or the mucous membranes and pass into the bloodstream. This reaches the whole body and thus the effect of the exogenous cannabinoids also unfolds throughout the body. An exception would be only the external application of skin disorders. Endogenous cannabinoids, on the other hand, are always released where they are supposed to work. In the same body region where these agents or messengers arise, there are the matching cannabinoid receptors. As long as there are no messenger substances or they do not dock, the reaction of the receptors will be off, so they are so long inactive. However, if they are to react, the messenger substances are released to trigger a very targeted and spatially limited response. Delta-9-THC and anandamide are very similar in their effect. This THC is the only phytocannabinoid, which has an intoxicating effect and triggers the high. If anandamide is released in the organism, then only regionally. However, if you were to administer anandamide from the outside, it would go through the blood in the whole body and would certainly also make high. The name Anandamid was after all derived from Ananda, which means "bliss" and comes from the Sanskrit. Nevertheless, it can develop a very good medical effect in various diseases when THC is supplied to the organism. For the medical effect often enough dosages that do not make high, so that an everyday life remains possible. Difference between healthy and sickIn a healthy person, enough endogenous cannabinoids are released in different situations for the body to function normally. After all, cannabinoids are crucially important as messengers in the cannabinoid system, in order to control many different conscious and unconscious functions. In a sick person, there may be a deficiency in this cannabinoid system either at one or in some places. However, there may also be an additional need due to the disease. In both situations, it makes sense to take the right exogenous cannabinoids in sufficient quantities. In addition, of course, also be teased for pleasure. Or you simply take precautionary or relaxation CBD as well as other non-intoxicating cannabinoids. The healthy person can not do so much wrong, or would then usually stop by themselves quickly. In sick people, however, the difference in the effect is greater, which cannabinoids are taken in which concentration. Individual cannabinoids can be counterproductive in some diseases. Thus, too much THC can aggravate psychotic disorders quickly, but very often can be treated very well with CBD. While one can not exert much influence on the endogenous cannabinoids, as they are secreted by themselves in the body, exogenous cannabinoids can be used to great effect. That's exactly where the chances are in cannabinoid medicine. Source: BRUNGERT, Robert. Endogene Cannabinoide, 7 march 2018. Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/endogene-cannabinoide/ Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/ 

Exogenous cannabinoids

Each vertebrate has a cannabinoid system and thus also forms endogenous cannabinoids. Phytocannabinoids have the highest number and highest concentration in the cannabis plant. Phytocannabinoids occur occasionally in other plants. This also applies to some endogenous cannabinoids. Thus, anandamide comes as an endogenous cannabinoid, e.g. in cocoa and thus in chocolate. Of course, the concentrations are not enough for an anandamide intoxication that would be similar to the THC noise. Flowing transitionsMany naturally occurring molecules can be replicated exactly in the chemistry lab. That would work for some endogenous cannabinoids and phytocannabinoids. So there may be cannabinoids that can be in two or maybe three of the three genotypes of cannabinoids. After all, anandamide is also found in cocoa and chocolate, and it may also be produced in the chemistry lab. However, the predominant place of origin is in our bodies, which would clearly make it one of the endogenous cannabinoids. Otherwise you would have to expand the term anandamide to the place of origin. In addition to identical molecules from nature, artificially mimicked molecules, which are almost identical, could potentially have the same effect as the naturally occurring cannabinoid. Nevertheless, the scientists would then choose two different names. After all, THC and anandamide have their own names. Flowing transitions include partially synthetically produced exogenous cannabinoids. Thus, due to the legal framework, some CBD-containing fiber hemp is cultivated to extract CBD, from which THC is subsequently produced. From an economic point of view, it would be much more useful to grow THC-containing cannabis directly. Technically, the atoms in the molecules of THC and CBD are arranged exactly the same. Only one double bond between the two molecules is different. If a natural product is merely adapted in the chemistry laboratory, then these are partly synthetic products. However, if the ingredients already come from the test tube or petroleum, then it would be a fully synthetic product. Partially synthetic cannabinoids are also referred to as artificial cannabinoids. They are neither pure natural product nor are they wholly derived from the chemistry lab. At least Dronabinol, with its active ingredient THC, is said to have a vegetable or partially synthetic origin, depending on the process. Hundreds of exogenous cannabinoidsCannabinoids have only recently entered the medical focus of the public. Once people only knew about THC, many now know that CBD is also a cannabinoid and there are many more cannabinoids. At the same time, since the spice wave, it has been publicly known that synthetic cannabinoids exist. Nevertheless, many do not understand the scope of this group of substances. If so far at least 113 pytocannabinoids have been identified among others only in the cannabis plant, there are probably already hundreds of synthetic cannabinoids. These are not discovered, but created. As already mentioned, in the molecule only one double bond has to be different, so that it becomes a different substance and has a completely different effect. That's why the synthetic cannabinoids are much more dangerous than the natural ones. If cannabis is spoken in Germany, then the proven cases invariably go back to synthetic cannabinoids. With natural cannabinoids it is hardly possible to reach a lethal dose in practical life. Furthermore, there are cannabinoids, in which the scientists are still arguing, whether they sort these molecules in the category of cannabinoids or not. Thus, the cannabis plant contains many terpenes, e.g. make out the smell and contribute to a medical effect. There are molecules that could easily be considered as terpenes and as exogenous cannabinoids, since they have the same properties for both substance classes. The differences between the cannabinoidsCannabinoids are messenger substances, also called neurotransmitters, which dock in the body to the cannabinoid receptors and thereby trigger a reaction. This triggered reaction is thus the effect of cannabinoids. Just as with other receptors, different messenger substances can dock differently or have different durations in the body. Some cannabinoids are metabolized faster or more slowly and thus have less or more time to dock to a cannabinoid receptor or other receptors. Each material can only dock to specific receptors and then occupy them. During docking, no other messenger can dock at this point. If counterproductive soil substances degrade only slowly in the body and dock very strongly and at the same time for a long time to a receptor, then one has to wait, so to speak longer, until a normal state can be set again. The period of time in which damage can occur is much longer. In the case of natural cannabinoids, these problems are manageable, since humanity has had experience with them for millennia. For synthetically produced exogenous cannabinoids, this is anything but manageable, since any late effects would be delayed by name. For consumers who jump into the cold water without experience or proper sources of information, the risk of critical overdose or unknown intolerance is far higher than with natural cannabinoids. Source: BRUNGERT, Robert. Exogene Cannabinoide, 18 march 2018 Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/exogene-cannabinoide/ Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/ 


THC very similar endogenous cannabinoidWhen it comes to cannabis, many people think of kippers and highs first. This high is to be attributed as a intoxicating effect on a single phytocannabinoid. All other phytocannabinoids affect at most this high of the THC, but do not make high on their own. For cannabis and cannabinoids, however, the endocannabinoid system can also be considered. Here, the body's own cannabinoids are released as so-called endocannabinoids. Anandamide was the first endogenous cannabinoid discovered in 1992. It's very similar to the Delta 9 THC. Does our body sting? If you had a sufficient amount of anandamide and would take this, the effect would probably be the effect of THC and thus very similar to the kiffen. Anandamide is derived as the name of the Ananda, which comes from Sanskrit and means "bliss". It is easy to step away, thoughtless and happy. It is a state that allows you to leave the world and all your everyday life side by side and forget about time. When cannabis or its derived cannabinoids are used, they are absorbed via the lungs, the intestines or the mucous membranes and transferred to the blood. With this they reach the whole body and thus work everywhere in the body. However, endogenous cannabinoids are secreted where they bind to the cannabinoid receptors and thereby trigger a reaction. So they work punctually. There have already been attempts to deliver the cannabinoids from outside to a tumor independently of the bloodstream in order to obtain the necessary dose that would not have been achievable by smoking. Since these cannabinoids did not flow through the blood and were not absorbed well into the blood stream, they also had a selective effect. In normal everyday life such a "selective kiffen" would only be possible as external application for skin diseases with special creams. A "high" stays off. arachidonylethanolamideThe full name of anandamide is "arachidonyletanolamide". The molecular formula is C22H37NO2. The molecular formula of Delta-9-THC is C21H30O2. The effect of both molecules is very similar, but they are quite different in the atoms present and especially in their arrangement to each other. In the 3D model, the two molecules would be very similar again. If THC is smoked, the effect lasts a few hours to a maximum of four hours. With anandamide, the effect lasts at most 30 minutes. Both cannabinoids have their effects in different aspects, which can be used as a basis for determining the intensity of effect. Depending on the point of action, the effect of anandamide would be 4 to 20 times weaker. If a very high concentration were achieved, then it could displace the THC from the cannabinoid receptors. Otherwise both cannabinoids work at the same time. Anandamide is found in higher organisms and also in cocoa and chocolate. Of course, the quantities are not enough to create a intoxicating effect here and in the cocoa further active ingredients would influence the effect of anandamide. The discovery of anandamide is attributed to the Czech chemist Lumir Ondrej Janus and the US pharmacologist William Anthony Devande. However, it was also Raphael Mechoulam as a pioneer pioneer of cannabinoid research involved in this discovery. In the year of discovery in 1992, the circle of researchers around the medical mode of action of cannabinoids were even more manageable than in the present. Anandamide in the bodyAs a molecule, anandamide is the ethanolamine derivative of arachidonic acid and is a tetraunsaturated fatty acid. Especially in the central nervous system, the occurrence or concentration is higher. It binds to the CB1 and CB2 receptors as well as to the vanilloid TRPV1 receptor. Striking is the increased interaction of anandamide in brain regions, which are responsible for the perception as well as the processing of thoughts and the movements. Here it will play a special role, so the obvious assumption. Anandamide, like THC, is fat-soluble. It is not the only endogenous cannabinoid discovered. However, it is the endogenous counterpart to THC, even though humans can hardly influence their "dose" here. Anandamide is very likely to be a crucial and irreplaceable endogenous cannabinoid when it comes to achieving well-being. However, this "bliss" already contained in the name of anandamide would only be a mechanism of action. However, the other effects will also allow a sense of well-being, as they help to keep the organism "in the middle" and thus physically and mentally healthy. Source: BRUNGERT, Robert. Anandamid – unser Organismus kifft. 1 [online]. 1n. l., 16 march 2018, 1(1), 1 [cit. 2019-10-25]. Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/anandamid-unser-organismus-kifft/ Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/  

CBD and the Immune System - Can Cannabidiol Support the Immune System?

Colds, herpes, allergies - many complaints in everyday life, we lead back to the fact that our immune system does not work optimally. Sometimes it seems to let us down, sometimes it reacts stronger than it should. As scientific studies show, CBD could interfere with oil regulation: How does our immune system work?Our organism comes into daily contact with bacteria, viruses and environmental toxins. If foreign cells enter the body, we need an instance that distinguishes friend from enemy. This task is done by the human immune system. It's not a conduit network like our bloodstream and our nerve cells, but rather a communication network that involves cells of different types. They provide each other with information about potentially threatening substances and the state of health of tissues and organs. If a substance enters the system that is identified as hostile, certain signal substances (cytokines) initially trigger an inflammatory process. This alerts other immune cells, such as our leukocytes or killer cells. They have the ability to destroy and consume pathogens. Even infected body cells are destroyed by the defense cells. As efficient as it sounds - the human immune system is not always working optimally. Allergies arise when the immune system overreacts to certain plant substances. In contrast, autoimmune diseases develop when defense cells falsely attack their own body cells. Immune system and cannabinoids - where is the connection?Receptors, so "docking" for cannabinoids are located on many cells of the immune system. T cells, neutrophil granocytes, monocytes, NK cells and B cells have CB2 receptors to which cannabinoids can bind. If they do so, they attract other immune cells to a damaged site in the organism through chemical signals. At the same time, however, cannabinoids are also responsible for balancing the immune system and avoiding overreactions. This task is usually done by our endogenous cannabinoids, the endocannabinoids. However, if there are deficits or imbalances, herbal cannabinoids such as CBD can be helpful. The optimal function of our immune system depends directly on the balance of our endocannabinoid system. If the CB1 receptors in our body are strongly inhibited, the immune system may be impaired in its function. If the organism does not have endocannabinoids such as anandamide and 2-AG, it may lead to diseases such as irritable bowel, fibromyalgia or migraine. Scientists believe that supplementing herbal cannabinoids in these cases can promote good health. Source: CBD und das Immunsystem – kann Cannabidiol die Immunabwehr unterstützen? Apr 29,2019. Dostupné z: https://fivebloom.de/blogs/cbd-news/cbd-und-das-immunsystem Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

CBD in allergies - can cannabidiol soothe the immune system?

Some of them are happy when trees and flowers are blooming in spring, while others would rather escape to the North Pole. In particular, hay fever sufferers can hardly enjoy the warm season, because they bring along with the pollen Schniefnasen, watery eyes and sneezing attacks. But also food allergies; House dust allergies and incompatibilities with chemicals make everyday life difficult for those affected. What happens in the body during allergies, such as CBD oil could increase the well-being of allergy sufferers, you will find out here: What are allergies?In an allergy, the human organism reacts to individual substances of its environment (allergens) with a strong immune response. In this case, pro-inflammatory substances such as e.g. Released histamine that cause typical discomfort. The physical symptoms then express themselves in:red and irritated eyesirritated nasal mucosahay feverSneezeto coughallergic asthmadigestive problemsSkin irritation and rashEczema and eczemaFor example, allergens are taken via the respiratory tract, as is the case with widespread hay fever. According to recent surveys, about 14.5 percent of all Germans suffer from respiratory ailments during their heyday. In addition, allergens can also enter the body through food or through direct skin contact. What is the usual therapy for allergies?Here are two approaches: The first is based on drugs that reduce the production of the inflammatory histamine in the body, so-called antihistamines. These preparations are effective and are available over the counter. However, they are sometimes associated with unpleasant side effects, especially with severe fatigue. In addition, there is the possibility of hyposensitization for allergy sufferers. In this case, the person concerned receives low-dose injections of the corresponding allergen, in order to slowly get the body used to the substance. How does CBD affect our immune system? The human endocannabinoid system and the immune system are closely related. After all, CB2 receptors to which cannabinode can bind are located on the important cells of the immune system, for example the T cells. Here, cannabinoids can regulate how many pro-inflammatory signaling substances are released during an immune response. Researchers in the animal model of asthma demonstrated that this regulatory effect can have a beneficial effect on allergic reactions. Treatment with CBD was able to significantly reduce the pro-inflammatory signaling, various interleukins and tumor necrosis factor alpha in the lung tissue of the experimental animals. The authors of the study are in favor of CBD as a potential future therapeutic for the inflammatory processes in asthma. Surveys in dermatology, however, see opportunities in CBD to treat atopic dermatitis and contact allergies. Finally, scientists in the animal model of arthritis have observed that cannabidiol can also regulate autoimmune responses by reducing the presence of proinflammatory signaling in the synovial fluid.  Which CBD products are suitable for an allergy?Dietary supplements with CBD are freely available in Germany and do not bring the risk of side effects. Unlike with the use of antihistamines, allergy sufferers do not have to worry about drowsiness. It is known from scientific experiments that CBD is absorbed well via the oral mucosa and via the transdermal route. In principle, allergy sufferers can therefore use CBD oil or CBD balm. When products are applied to the skin, it is important that there are no ingredients that can cause allergies. Ideal are CBD balms, which contain only natural fats such as shea butter or mango butter and do without chemical preservatives and fragrances. Even less risk of allergies exists in CBD oils based on MCT oils. They are dripped under the tongue on the oral mucosa to ensure optimal absorption of the ingredients in the organism. Beginners should begin with a 5 to 10 percent CBD oil picking and a dosage of 3 drops twice a day. Source: CBD bei Allergien – kann Cannabidiol das Immunsystem beruhigen?  May 2, 2019. Dostupné z: https://fivebloom.de/blogs/cbd-news/cbd-bei-allergien-oder-heuschnupfen Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

Does CBD help stomach and intestines? Cannabidiol and the digestive tract

A good gut feeling is not only important in the figurative sense: The fact that the digestive tract works smoothly is essential for general well-being. But there is a problem here: it is estimated that 29 percent of the European population experience recurring indigestion; A total of 400,000 patients in Germany suffer from inflammatory bowel disease. Could CBD oil help alleviate the symptoms here? Below you will learn how the endocannabinoid system interacts with the digestive tract and what recent studies on CBD have found in bowel disease: What makes a healthy digestive system?The health of our intestinal tract is not only our business, but also that of trillions of microorganisms. Their job is to help digestion, neutralize potential toxins, make vitamins and communicate with the immune system. If bacterial colonization in the intestine is disturbed by pathological conditions, chronic intestinal inflammation and even mental illness can be the result. Animal experiments have already shown how the change in the intestinal flora in mice results in increased anxiety and a tendency to depression. Also in patients with a post-traumatic stress disorder, changes were detected in the occurrence of special intestinal bacteria. No wonder then that our intestinal tract is also referred to by some scientists as the "gut brain". A gut feeling would therefore not be a vague feeling, but may be the result of the collective intelligence of trillions of intestinal bacteria. How do cannabinoids affect the intestine?The human endocannabinoid system also extends to our digestive organs. CB1 receptors are located in the stomach and intestine, where they allow (endo) cannabinoids to control appetite and saturation. In addition, they affect motility, i. the movements that maneuver our food through the digestive tract. Finally, the anti-inflammatory potential of some cannabinoids could have a positive effect on the intestinal mucosa and correlate with a healthy intestinal flora: In which intestinal diseases could CBD support well-being?A well-known chronic intestinal disease is irritable bowel syndrome. Physicians are still uncertain about his cause - but his symptoms severely affect the quality of life of those affected: diarrhea, flatulence, cramps and constipation are the result. Stress, intolerance to certain foods or taking hormone supplements such as the "pill" can cause relapses. Scientists are currently working on a theory that explains chronic pain in irritable bowel syndrome, which can hardly be attributed to external factors, by a lack of endocannabinoids (Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency Syndrome). [2] Here, an intake of herbal cannabinoids such as CBD could possibly have a positive effect and reduce painful discomfort. This thesis is supported by numerous reports of irritable bowel patients, whose quality of life CBD could increase. CBD and inflammatory bowel disease and CBDIn inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, there are inflammations of the intestinal tract, which cause bumpy severe discomfort. Doctors suspect the triggers in an autoimmune reaction. The fact that cannabis preparations can alleviate the symptoms is well known. [3] In addition, a 2011 study examined the mechanisms by which CBD, as a single substance, could exert a positive influence on inflammatory processes in the gut: it has been shown to control the activation of enteric glial cells. In turn, these cells increasingly release growth factors and inflammatory signaling substances (cytokines). In excess they can cause inflammation. The modulating capabilities of CBD could mitigate these processes.  Source: Hilft CBD Magen und Darm? Cannabidiol und der Verdauungstrakt. Apr,22 2019. Dostupné z: https://fivebloom.de/blogs/cbd-news/hilft-cbd-magen-und-darm Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

Regular pain: CBD helps

CBD relaxes and relieves crampsWhile most of the average 28-day cycle is relatively calm and normal, the uterine muscles begin to contract just before the menstrual period. These contractions interrupt blood flow in the abdomen. It is precisely this interruption that causes more pain in one woman and less pain in the other. Happy are those who do not suffer at all. In some girls and women, however, the pain is so unbearable that they therefore even fail in everyday life, so must report to the employer sick or can not go to sports. In Germany, therefore, many patients resort to analgesics such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen. Others prefer to take antispasmodic drugs from the pharmacy. However, this is more of a permanent solution with two eyes closed, as this type of medication has negative effects on the body. For example, they strain the kidneys when taken regularly. Some pain sufferers now stick electrodes instead to the skin. By light surges, the muscles should relax and provide relief. While some swear by it, others complain about the annoying feeling of having to walk around the bikini area with electrode stickers, where one can not move quite as freely during the days anyway. Often, young women are prescribed the pill to prevent the unpleasant side effects of menstruation. However, it is artificially intervened in the hormone balance to prevent ovulation. The cannabinoid CBD is according to the current state of research free of side effects. It naturally acts on the human endocannabinoid system. This expands throughout the body and even produces various cannabinoids to keep the immune system intact. However, this system is prone to disorders such as illness and stress - the latter is also caused by pain. By administering CBD in the form of oil or capsules, the inner balance can be restored. CBD has a relaxing, anti-spasmodic and anti-inflammatory effect. For menstrual problems, it is therefore a good treatment option. Since it contains virtually no THC and therefore does not have an intoxicating effect, women who suffer from period pain can obtain CBD legally and without a prescription. Different types of menstrual pain and their causes The female cycle is determined by different hormones. The goal is to prepare the body for possible reproduction. Therefore, the uterine lining builds up in the first half of the cycle. It is well supplied with blood and thick or short: ready for the implantation of the fertilized egg. However, if there is no fertilization and thus no pregnancy, the mucosa dissolves in the second half of the cycle after ovulation from the uterus. The excretion takes place during the period. After the menstrual period, the circulation starts again, so the menstrual pain occurs every month again. Generally, a distinction is made between primary and secondary menstrual pain. The primary menstrual pain falls into the category of "natural", which is pain that occurs during the menstrual period, without any pathological change in the female body. The women who suffer from primary periodic pain have been fighting this problem since puberty. Secondary menstrual pain primarily affects older women and is mostly due to illness. Changes in the female reproductive system often cause painful days. Such changes include, for example, endometriosis (small, benign growths in the abdomen), uterine infections, and ovarian cysts. Frequently by these diseases not only the intensity of bleeding increases, but also pain. In general, there are various factors, besides malformations or diseases, which can aggravate menstrual pain. These include a low body weight, an irregular or longer than average cycle, the consumption of alcohol and nicotine, the prevention of pregnancy with the help of the spiral, stress or other psychological causes. Symptoms of menstrual painMany readers know her too well - the typical symptoms of menstrual cramps: cramping and tearing in the abdomen. The pain can follow at short intervals, be regular or prolonged, and can be up to the back. Often, digestion is also affected during the period, so some women suffer from diarrhea or nausea. Even headaches can be part of the discomfort. Anyone who is in constant pain and uncomfortable will eventually get into a bad mood. In addition, fatigue, fatigue and lower concentration or performance are added to this. Many women would therefore just like to lie in the hot tub or with a hot water bottle on the stomach on the couch and wait for the first two, so the worst days, pass as quickly as possible. Different forms of CBD for menstrual pain Not only hot baths and hot water bottles relax the cramped uterus, but also sex. But after a suitable partner is not always and everywhere available and women can not spend hours in the bathroom, it makes sense to relax the body in other ways. CBD has anti-spasmodic properties, reduces stress and relaxes, and therefore relieves menstrual pain. Already Queen Victoria's doctor, Sir Joshua Reynolds, knew about the beneficial effects of the cannabis plant and ordered the majesty a suitable cannabis tincture against her menstrual pain. Women in Asia and Africa have also been relying on natural pain relief from cannabis products for centuries. In our society, the use and research of cannabinoids has long been neglected by the illegalization of the hemp plant. However, countries such as the US and Canada are now turning around and the research and production of various cannabis products is evidently progressing inexorably. Europe is slowly catching up. The US actress Whoopi Goldberg has recognized the trend and together with the food manufacturer Maya Elisabeth sells medical cannabis products under the name "whoopi & maya", which are tailored to women with regular pains. In addition to cannabis tinctures and ointments, the ladies also offer a bath additive and chocolate with the corresponding active ingredients. In liberal California and the US state of Colorado, pain-stricken women enjoy the so-called cannabis tampons, which are marketed under the name of Foria Relief. Actually, this product is not really a tampon, but a suppository, which is introduced before using a tampon. Within 15 to 30 minutes, the suppository dissolves, so that the active ingredients are absorbed by the vaginal mucosa. In Germany, the suppositories are not yet available because they contain besides ten milligrams of legal CBD also 60 milligrams of psychoactive THC. Many women reported having a relaxing effect and pain relief after about eight minutes. The THC can be detected by the usual drug tests in the body. Medically sound studies on Foria Relief are pending. We also have medical cannabis products on prescription from the pharmacy. These are mainly used in palliative medicine. In menstrual pain, it would be extremely difficult to find a doctor and a health insurance company who would participate in a prescription. The legal alternative is CBD. In the form of oil, you can either take cannabidiol orally or drip one or two drops on a tampon to make it easier to get it right where it's needed. Instructions for buying CBD productsTo minimize the unwanted ingestion of any pollutants, attention should be paid to the bio-seal when purchasing CBD products. Oils should contain at least 99 percent pure CBD. When manufacturing, it is important to keep an eye on ensuring that the products are as close as possible to the GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice for Medicines) and ISO standards so that they are of a certain quality. Court decision regarding cannabis use against menstrual painAt this point the readers should not be deprived of the court order of 4 January 2017 from Baden-Württemberg: A woman who regularly consumed cannabis for six to seven days a month - the intoxicating THC variant, not the pure CBD - wanted to deprive the driving license authority of their driving license. In an urgent procedure, however, the Freiburg administrative court ruled that the woman was allowed to keep her driver's license for the time being. The reasoning was that the person concerned would firstly have not combined consumption and driving, and secondly, they would not take cannabis regularly. Even if the consumption was monthly over several days, the woman did not take THC-containing products on the menstruation-free days and therefore did not fulfill the conditions necessary for a driving license withdrawal.The decision may be understood as a positive sign in the direction of cannabis for pain relief. Source: SOMMER, Kathryn. Regelschmerzen: CBD schafft Abhilfe. 21 Feb, 2018 Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/cbd-in-der-medizin/regelschmerzen-cbd-schafft-abhilfe/ Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

The function of endocannabinoids

Endogenous cannabinoids are produced in the body. Also exogenous phytocannabinoids from the cannabis plant or synthetic cannabinoids from the laboratory can be supplied to the body from the outside. These exogenous cannabinoids attach to the cannabinoid receptors and thus have an effect. First of all, this is about the function of endocannabinoids in our body, though the subject could certainly fill a book. In our body, thousands or even more functions take place side by side at the same time. There are organs in the body, but there are also small organs in many cells that perform functions. All this needs to be controlled so that it does not become "too little" or "too much". Simplified, it can be said that endocannabinoids in the organism take over a very important part of these "control functions" and that we thus find a "healthy center". This applies, on the one hand, to unconscious biochemical processes with which, for example, the feeling of hunger or sleep can be controlled. Of course, we realize that we are getting hungry or sleepy and react to these important impulses. But even with the feeling of pain, anxiety, aggression or mood, endocannabinoids bring us back to the center. Endocannabinoids than the other neurotransmittersThere is an incredible abundance of chemical substances in every higher organism, all of which have their functions. Neurotransmitters are messengers. A nerve cell releases them to trigger a reaction in another nerve cell. When a nerve cell perceives something or takes damage, it releases the appropriate neurotransmitter, which then triggers the impulse in the next nerve cell to pass on the information. Thus, information about the nerve tracts from the little toe can penetrate into the brain with almost no loss of time. Normal neurotransmitters are formed and released as needed. Endocannabinoids are formed as needed and distributed at the same time. Excessive impulses can not only drive pain patients to madness. Pain, just like anxiety or stress, is something very positive at first because it alerts the organism. After all, this must act quickly and quickly notice the problem. However, if too much pain, anxiety or stress, the organism can no longer follow the right actions on the impulse. Those who simply freeze in fear, respond to a dangerous moment usually not right. Because of the endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors have the property of not only relaying the message from the impulse. You can also answer the impulse. So you can soothe the "source of stimulation", so that the over-stimulation fails and the organism can react more meaningful to the impulse. Endocannabinoids are therefore very important messengers, with which body functions or sensations take place, but no excess occurs. Endocannabinoids in healthIn health, "mediocrity" is, as it were, the prerequisite for being healthy and staying healthy. Much just wants to be detrimental to a defect or excess and is not questionable. This applies when eating, e.g. for fat, without it just being not. So it has to be a certain amount of fat, which composition should bring a certain quality for the body. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are much healthier than the saturated fatty acids. Too much fat is unhealthy at some point, too little too. Many illnesses come from a "too little" or "too much". If the endocannabinoid system is disturbed and too few endocannabinoids are formed, they can bring the organism less well into the healthy center. Many diseases are due to search "imbalances" in the endocannabinoid system or cause search "imbalances". Here it can help if the right exogenous cannabinoids are added to the endocannabinoid system. There are also special living conditions. A painful back pain or a part of the body has been operated on and hurts since then. It can therefore be about traumatizing events. The actual healthy person takes damage over time, where his actually healthy endocannabinoid system does not lead to the middle anymore. Again, it may help if the right exogenous cannabinoids are supplied. Physical or mental pain can be reduced. Effects of EndocannabinoidsThe areas of action of the endocannabinoids actually comprise the entirety of the unconscious and the conscious bodily functions. Whether it is about mood, metabolism, digestion, appetite, sleeping, pain, the elimination of inflammation, immune functions or memory: without endocannabinoids, the organism can not find the mediocrity. Endocannabinoids are somewhat superior to the exogenous cannabinoids in that they are released in the right places in the body. So they are work in the right places. If exogenous cannabinoids are added, they are absorbed into the bloodstream via the digestive system, the lung or under the tongue. In this way, they reach the whole organism and therefore affect the whole organism. In some situations this can be detrimental. Source: BRUNGERT, Robert. Die Funktion der Endocannabinoide17 Feb, 2018,Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/die-funktion-der-endocannabinoide/ Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

What is cannabidiol?

Cannabidiol (abbreviated: CBD) is the second most abundant cannabinoid in hemp, after the main active ingredient THC. It therefore belongs to the phytocannabinoids and occurs mainly in the hemp with an amount of up to 2% in the flowers.Cannabis indica-dominant strains have a higher CBD content than strains dominated by cannabis sativa.CBD taken alone does not cause any intoxication - it is not essentially psychotropic (with the exception of the slightly sedating effect) - and no relevant (psychic) ​​side effects.The individual effects of the substance, as well as those of other cannabinoids, have not been fully explored. So there is room for discovery of other medical effects. The effect in isolated form is also to be considered differently than in combination with many other substances of the cannabis plant (for example over 100 cannabinoids alone, as well as flavonoids, terpenes, terpenoids).CBD mediates its effects via both the CB1 and CB2 receptors. These are receptors of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), are activated or inhibited by the body's own cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) and influence many physiological processes; Among other things, the EC system has an involvement in diseases of the metabolism, disorders of the nervous system and the psyche, pain and inflammatory processes, cancers and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, to name just a few examples.CBD can be understood as mediating the effects of THC, as it enhances the analgesic, mind-altering and euphoric properties of THC; On the other hand, it acts as an antagonist by inhibiting the increase in appetite caused by THC, increasing the heart rate as well as any unpleasant psychological effects (increased anxiety, anxiety, paranoia).For a long time, cannabis breeders were primarily concerned with keeping the CBD content as low as possible in order to achieve a better "high". So it is in many popular cannabis strains at less than one percent. Meanwhile, however, there is a clear trend of medical use in the direction of high-CBD strains, so CBD-rich varieties, which come up with a significant medical potential, without really psychedelic effect.The effect here is more towards plättend, body-accentuated and pleasantly soothing on the psyche. Therefore, CBD-rich cannabis strains (e.g., in ratio (CBD-THC) 1: 1 or even 2: 1) are ideally suited for treatment of, for example, muscle spasms, sleep disorders, and anxiety.CBD is not regulated in Germany, Austria and Switzerland and is absolutely legal in its pure form. Source: FÖRSTER, Hendrik. Was ist Cannabidiol? 13 Jan, 2015. Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/cbd-in-der-medizin/was-ist-cannabidiol/ Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/ 

The endocannabinoid system: How THC works in the body

The beginningsModern cannabinoid research, which began about 50 years ago, was initially initiated to understand the effect of an illicit drug. After the chemistry of the plant and the pharmacological and psychological effects of THC were at least partially understood in the 60s and 70s, the field of research changed. From the mid-80s, research into the mode of action of THC and other cannabinoids in the hemp plant in the body and thus the discovery of the endocannabinoid system began. It soon became clear that this body's regulatory system is involved in many bodily functions.In 1964, the complete elucidation of the chemical structure of the delta-9-THC of the hemp plant was achieved. Approximately 30 years later, the first endogenous cannabinoids were discovered, arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA) in 1992, and arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in 1995. Since then, research on the effects of endocannabinoids on human health and disease has become more widespread.Endocannabinoid receptorsIn 1987, an American research group was able to show that there are specific binding sites in the brain for THC. Their distribution in the brain is consistent with the pharmacological properties of THC and other (synthetic) cannabinoids that cause psychic effects. In 1990, it was finally possible to decode the chemical structure of the first cannabinoid receptor in the brain. A short time later, a second cannabinoid receptor was detected in the spleen.The cannabinoid-1 receptorOriginally it had been thought that the CB1 receptor (cannabinoid-1 receptor) was found only in the central nervous system, so it was considered a brain cannabinoid receptor. However, it occurs in many organs. The CB1 receptor is one of the most common receptors in the brain. The highest concentrations are found, among others, in the basal ganglia of the brain, which play a role in the coordination of movements, or in the hippocampus, which is important for the conversion of short-term information into long-term memory contents or for spatial orientation. CB1 receptors are found in many regions that play an important role in sensory perception (taste, smell, touch, hearing), mental performance, and motivation. For example, when CB1 receptors in the brain are activated by THC, sensory perception increases. In this way, the taste and smell of food and listening to music intensifies.In contrast, there are no CB1 receptors in the brainstem responsible, inter alia, for the control of respiration and the cardiovascular system. Today it is assumed that there are no deaths from overdose of cannabis or THC in healthy persons, because the functions of the brainstem can not be significantly affected by such an overdose.The protective function of the CB1 receptorCannabinoid 1 receptors are located at the end of nerve cells, where a signal is passed through the gap between two nerve cells from one nerve cell to another. The most important function of the CB1 receptors in the nervous system is the inhibition of excessive signal transmission by messenger substances in the brain, so-called neurotransmitters. Activation of CB1 receptors inhibits overactivity of all neurotransmitters in the brain (glutamate, serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, etc.). Thus, the endocannabinoid system has multiple protective functions against over-excitement in the central nervous system and helps to balance the activity of the brain. This explains the broad spectrum of action of THC or cannabis. When THC binds to CB1 receptors, too much activity is inhibited in the pain control circuits of the brain, thereby relieving pain. If neurotransmitter activity is too high in regions responsible for nausea and vomiting, activation of the CB1 receptor may reduce this increased activity. By similar mechanisms, muscle spasticity, epileptic seizures, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, hyperactivity and other disease symptoms are attenuated by activation of the endocannabinoid system.The cannabinoid 2 receptorOriginally it was thought that CB2 receptors only occur in the immune system outside the brain. However, they were eventually detected throughout the central nervous system, especially in microglial cells, albeit at a lower concentration than CB1 receptors. Microglial cells are crucial for brain immune defense.The body of humans and other mammals has a highly developed immune system that protects it from attack by viruses, bacteria and other potentially harmful external influences and aims to prevent, mitigate and repair the damage. The endocannabinoid system is part of this protective mechanism via its CB2 receptors.Endogenous cannabinoidsThe discovery of cannabinoid receptors suggested that there are endogenous substances that bind to these receptors. In fact, such an endocannabinoid was first detected in 1992. Its discoverers called it anandamide from the Sanskrit word "Ananda" for bliss and "amide" because of its chemical structure. In 1995, a second endocannabinoid, 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol) was discovered. These two endocannabinoids are best researched so far. Today it is assumed that about 200 substances that resemble the discovered endocannabinoids in their chemical structure.Unlike most messenger substances (neurotransmitters) in the brain, they are not produced by the nerve cell, which transmits a signal to another nerve cell, but by the nerve cell that receives the signal. If the signal, ie the concentration of the neurotransmitters, is too large, endocannabinoids are increasingly formed which, via the activation of CB1 receptors, reduce this excessive neurotransmitter activity.Different endocannabinoids can bind not only to cannabinoid receptors, but also to a putative CB3 receptor, the GPR55 receptor, vanilloid receptors, and other receptors.Proteins for the formation and degradation of end cannabinoidsThe proteins responsible for the synthesis of endocannabinoids have so-called N-acyltransferase (NAT), N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase (NAPE-PLD) or diaclglycirollipase (DAGL). The most important protein for the degradation of anandamide is fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and for the degradation of 2-AG monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL).Functions of the endocannabinoid system in the brainThe endocannabinoid system plays a role in the brain in anxiety and depression, in the regeneration of nerve cells, and it affects the reward system of the brain. It affects our mental capacity, ability to learn and memory. In this context, the eradication of unpleasant experiences by the endocannabinoid system is utilized in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. The effects of endocannabinoids in the brain are mainly mediated via CB1 receptors, but also in part via CB2 receptors on glial cells.Many studies show that activators of the CB1 receptor, such as THC, affect short-term memory. This effect can be prevented by high doses of CBD.Interestingly, however, memory loss could be reduced with age by activating the endocannabinoid system. For example, mice lacking CB1 receptors showed accelerated age-related mental performance deficits. They also lost important nerve cells in the hippocampus, which was accompanied by inflammation of the nerve cells. These findings suggest that CB1 receptors in the hippocampus may protect against age-related decline in mental performance.conclusionThe endocannabinoid system, with its endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors, and proteins responsible for the formation and degradation of endocannabinoids such as anandamide and 2-AG, has central biological functions in the central nervous system and in many other organs. Disruptions to the normal functioning of this system can lead to corresponding disorders of organ function. In diseases, a specific effect on the endocannabinoid system may be useful, for example, by inhibiting the degradation of endocannabinoids or by the administration of herbal cannabinoids such as THC.There is also evidence that certain diseases such as migraine, epilepsy or irritable bowel syndrome are associated with reduced activity of the endocannabinoid system. One speaks of Endocannabinoidmangel illnesses. The ingestion of plant cannabinoids might then compensate for this decreased activity. Source: GROTENHERMEN, Dr. Franjo. Das Endocannabinoidsystem: Wie THC seine Wirkung im Körper ausübt.15 Aug, 2016,Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/thc/das-endocannabinoidsystem-wie-thc-seine-wirkung-im-koerper-ausuebt Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/ 

Cannabis products for external use

We now know that the use of cannabis has health benefits. We can treat bowel disease with cannabis, fight colon cancer or relieve spasmodic symptoms. In addition, the effect of cannabis is also applicable to a great many other ailments, but the effects have not been completely investigated. Whether one eventually smokes or otherwise consumes the grass is up to the consumer.If you do not want to smoke, you can inject it through the skin, in the form of oil, through the food, or in finished foods. The possibilities are more or less open to us. A first step has already been taken with the legalization by prescription, even if it is only really recognized and serious diseases. The normal migraine patient will hardly get legal cannabis. That's a pity, but maybe that will change. Today, however, we are enriching ourselves with yet another effect of cannabis, namely the positive effects on our skin. The products are largely legally available.Effectiveness of THC and CBD confirmedClinical trials and numerous laboratory tests have now confirmed the efficacy of cannabis ingredients. It was investigated to what extent cannabis products can help against skin redness, inflammation, psoriasis, open wounds, acne or other skin diseases. Of course, the cannabis does not need to be smoked, but can be purchased legally in lotions, balms, oils or patches. We are looking forward to a product test in this regard and hope to be able to say more about exact products soon.Actually, people knew back in antiquity that cannabis and certain plant components help against skin diseases. For this reason, cannabis was mixed with other plants, herbs or animal extracts and prepared ointments. In today's laboratory tests, the effect was confirmed, because the cannabinoids increase the biochemical defenses of the skin. Unfortunately, we can not say much about exactly how cannabinoids do this and stimulate the healing process, because unfortunately research is not yet far enough. But the fact is that it helps and acts against a disease infestation of the skin.Acne and skin irritations - effects and resultsCannabinoids can reduce and even completely combat inflammation in the skin's sebaceous glands. Skin glands ensure that the skin is coated with sufficient natural fats. If the glands produce too much sebum, skin disorders or acne often occur. Cannabinoids have been proven to help against acne, eczema and other skin disorders. And again it was the mice that proved these theories. However, it is not just the cannabinoids that are good for our skin. The extracts of cannabis seeds, for example, reduced skin redness of subjects. These seeds contain proteins, oils and antioxidants to help against pimples.Skin care products are experiencing an upswingCannabis-enriched lotions are increasingly being sold and more and more people are experiencing the beneficial effects. Balsams, oils, gels or transdermal patches containing CBD, THC or terpene can be purchased. The cannabis preparations contain various substances, so that the skin can absorb the essential ingredients well. For example, the creams contain certain herbs to actively ensure intake. The products can be applied directly to the inflamed area and locally controlled.Will not you get high on it?No, because the ointments do not reach the bloodstream or the nervous system, whereby no high-effect can be experienced. The contained cannabinoids can bind with the CB2 receptors and act on the peripheral level.-> If you like, you can make your own CBD ointment yourself. All you need is cutaways, stalks and a few small buds. These are enriched with coconut oil and beeswax. We will work out a more exact recipe and of course publish it. Dermatitis and psoriasis are the perfect areas of application and you will see fast results. But even with sore muscles or against arthritis and for other pain relief help the homemade ointments.Patients and doctors should go new waysThe experiences of physicians and patients are becoming more and more frequent and also various official studies are proving more and more the positive effects on different processes. Relieving skin problems could be a breakthrough for cannabis products. In the US, various cannabis products are already being used to relieve symptoms such as fibromyalgia, ALS, sunburn, open wounds or migraine. The modes of action are antibacterial and anti-inflammatory, the properties of cannabis there are widely recognized. What works there can not be wrong here, right?Found a new drug?Now another active substance is to be held responsible for the positive effects on our organism, namely the so-called CBG. An active ingredient that can help against acne and skin aging.Of course, we must point out here that cannabis is not a panacea and you should always discuss your treatment with a doctor. At least you could ask in advance if self treatment with various cannabis products makes sense. Source: DIRSCHL, Jenny. Cannabisprodukte zur äußeren Anwendung. 17 feb, 2017. Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/thc/cannabisprodukte-zur-aeusseren-anwendung/Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

Cannabis use increases the chances of survival after a heart attack

The heart attack, also called myocardial infarction, is one of the leading causes of death in Germany. Without treatment, it always leads to death, so quick action is vital. The cause is a sudden occlusion of the coronary arteries. The heart muscle is then no longer supplied with blood, the heart can even stop beating.As a result, it can happen that the heart muscle dies. If a treatment is late, it may be that partial death of the heart muscle cells leads to the fact that the pumping function of the heart and its resilience is limited in the long term. The worst symptoms are acute chest pain and dread. Cannabis may not save a person from a heart attack, but consumption seems to have a positive effect on survival rates following infarction.A particular risk factor: Many cannabis users also use tobaccoThe National Inpatient Sample database includes data from thousands of patients who have been admitted to clinics in the United States. For one study, the data from more than 161,000 patients hospitalized for a heart attack were analyzed. Of these, 4224 indicated that they consume cannabis, 78.3 percent of the consumers were male, 21.7 percent were female. 71 percent of cannibis users also smoked tobacco, compared with only 49 percent of non-consumers. Tobacco smoke is one of the largest cardiovascular risk factors. Nevertheless, on average, consumers reported better health developments during hospitalization.Despite tobacco smoke, cannabis users recovered faster after a heart attackThe researchers explain the better recovery of cannabis users through both mental and physical factors. For example, increased consumer relaxation could improve blood flow to the heart, which could counteract cardiomyocyte death. The psychological handling of the hospital stay could have something to do with it. A positive mood always supports the physical recovery through physiological reactions to the mental state.Cannabis use makes hospitalization shorter and cheaperOverall, analysis of NIS data showed that cannabis users are more likely to recover from their heart attack than non-users. With an average of 4.2 days, they had a shorter hospital stay, ie non-consumers, who had to spend an average of 4.8 days in the hospital. Incidentally, they also cause lower costs to the healthcare system, $ 43,800 for the stay compared to $ 50,900 for patients who do not consume cannabis. In addition, the likelihood of death during hospitalization is six times lower among consumers.Can cannabis be used for cardiac patients?The need for further studies is beyond doubt with the results of the NIS data collection. With other evidence pointing to the benefits of cannabis for the health and function of the heart, more in-depth research might one day capture the context and make cannabis targeted for cardiac patients. Since the results of the analyzes are largely based on long-term consumers, a general legalization of cannabis, both medically and as a stimulant, would be a public health benefit.Source:GLASMANN, Dieter Klaus. Cannabiskonsum erhöht die Überlebenschancen nach einem Herzinfarkt., 22 Sep, 2019,Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabismedizin-allgemein/cannabiskonsum-erhoeht-die-ueberlebenschancen-nach-einem-herzinfarkt/Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/