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Cannabis in the fight against epilepsy

CBD in anxiety disordersA number of case reports and studies show that CBD can reduce anxiety. In a study from 2017 by the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil, administration of CBD reduced anxiety in healthy individuals in a dose-dependent manner. The subjective anxiety was reduced with 300 mg CBD, but not with 100 and 900 mg CBD in a frightening situation (public speaking test). The mean dose was thus the most effective. The same researchers from Brazil investigated the effect of CBD on patients with generalized social anxiety disorder in a test that simulated speaking in a public situation. Three groups were compared: 12 healthy volunteers as a control group without medication; 12 patients with anxiety who received a single dose of CBD (600 mg) and 12 who received placebo. Previous treatment with CBD significantly reduced anxiety, mental disabilities and discomfort during speech. CBD also reduced the mental tension before the speech.At the Psychedelic Science Conference in San Francisco, April 19-24, 2017, a large case series of 136 patients was presented demonstrating that CBD, even in low doses of 40 to 50 mg, could be useful in treating anxiety.. Cannabis has both pro- and anti-convulsive effectsAt the congress of the DGN (German Society of Neurology) 2016 in Mannheim, however, Professor Heidrun Potschka warned against eating phytocannabinoids in an uncontrolled manner in order to combat epilepsy. According to experience reports of some epilepsy patients, they would often have had a seizure after eating a joint. In these cases, cannabis was thus proconvulsive, spasm-promoting. As a justification, she first gave the current state of science: The cannabinoid-binding receptor CB1, which is part of the ECS, inhibits overactive synapses via a feedback loop. CB1 is presynaptic. If the overactive synapses release too many neurotransmitters, the postsynapse causes the release of endocannabinoids, which bind to the CB1 receptor and thus restrict the production of neurotransmitters. This process happens in both inhibitory and excitatory connections. Potschka believes that it would therefore depend on the current state of the brain whether the CB1 agonist THC would be more spasm-promoting or antispasmodic. Exactly to this topic is not yet known. It should not be left unmentioned that Potschka is employed at the Pharmacological Institute of the LMU Munich and may well represent her opinion from a pharmacological point of view and with corresponding interests. The cannabis plant not only has THC as an active ingredient, but also many other compounds that can have a positive or negative effect on convulsions. For the most part, science is still in the dark. Currently, in epilepsy research, the focus is not primarily on THC but on its antagonist, cannabidiol. There were consistently positive results with CBD. Cannabis: Studies show positive effects in epilepsyVarious studies worldwide - both human and animal - have now shown that the intake of cannabinoids counteract the onset of epileptic seizures. In addition, it has been shown that it is not only acute epileptic seizures that can be reduced by the administration of cannabinoids, but that the herbal active ingredients can also provide effective protection against the development of epilepsy. In addition, cannabinoids are neuroprotective. That means they protect the nerves. In addition, they are likely to interfere with excessive release of glutamate, which can damage the brain and be released during an epileptic seizure. Especially CBD is currently on everyone's lips when it comes to effective drugs for epilepsy - even if THC can demonstrably prevent seizures. The side effects of CBD are very manageable. Especially drowsiness and loss of appetite should be mentioned here. Another positive side-effect of CBD in the case of epilepsy is that it may potentiate the effects of conventional epilepsy drugs such as carbamazepine, diazepam, felbamate, gabapentin, phenobarbital, topiramate and valproic acid. The results of a study strongly suggest this. However, in-depth knowledge is still pending. It would be conceivable in the future that CBD could be used in drug form specifically for such reinforcement. Currently, cannabidiol is mainly as so-called "orphan drug", so approved as an orphan drug, and only for a limited number of epilepsy forms, such as: Dravet syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and tuberous sclerosis. Orphan drugs are subject to strong regulatory restrictions and may only be marketed for very rare diseases. Since CBD is available legally and without a prescription, as long as it is not offered in the form of a drug, but as a kind of dietary supplement, a large number of epilepsy patients who have treated themselves with cannabidiol report positive effects of the herbal active ingredient. The incidence of seizures has decreased in many cases with the use of CBD, which is consistent with findings from other studies on CBD and epilepsy. Outlook: Cannabinoids as an alternative medication for epilepsyDespite less critical voices in part opposing the use of cannabinoids in the treatment of epilepsy, science continues to provide hope-rich insights into cannabis and epilepsy. The first step towards the approval of drugs containing cannabinoids has already been made. Given the current research efforts, a considerable number of additional medicines may well be expected in the not too distant future. Whether the cannabinoids are then synthetically produced or taken from nature remains to be seen. However, it is clear that phytocannabinoids, which are not produced in the laboratory, are better tolerated than man-made compounds. With the active ingredients of the cannabis plant might even make a breakthrough in epilepsy treatment. It is - as so often - not least a question of the various interests that meet in the health system, whether and in what form or with what emphasis and success ultimately the affected people help with new drugs is offered. In the meantime, there is still a lot of room for self-help. The legally available CBD - whether in the form of oil, capsules, tablets or tinctures - is (still) freely available, so that every epilepsy patient can supplement his treatment. Of course, such proprietary therapies should always consult a knowledgeable physician and be mindful of the good (bio) quality of the CBD product. Anyone who does so, should be justified with a little patience justified hope for improvement. Source: SOMMER, Kathrin. Cannabis im Kampf gegen Epilepsie 29 march 2018. Dostupné z: Source photo:   

Exogenous cannabinoids

Each vertebrate has a cannabinoid system and thus also forms endogenous cannabinoids. Phytocannabinoids have the highest number and highest concentration in the cannabis plant. Phytocannabinoids occur occasionally in other plants. This also applies to some endogenous cannabinoids. Thus, anandamide comes as an endogenous cannabinoid, e.g. in cocoa and thus in chocolate. Of course, the concentrations are not enough for an anandamide intoxication that would be similar to the THC noise. Flowing transitionsMany naturally occurring molecules can be replicated exactly in the chemistry lab. That would work for some endogenous cannabinoids and phytocannabinoids. So there may be cannabinoids that can be in two or maybe three of the three genotypes of cannabinoids. After all, anandamide is also found in cocoa and chocolate, and it may also be produced in the chemistry lab. However, the predominant place of origin is in our bodies, which would clearly make it one of the endogenous cannabinoids. Otherwise you would have to expand the term anandamide to the place of origin. In addition to identical molecules from nature, artificially mimicked molecules, which are almost identical, could potentially have the same effect as the naturally occurring cannabinoid. Nevertheless, the scientists would then choose two different names. After all, THC and anandamide have their own names. Flowing transitions include partially synthetically produced exogenous cannabinoids. Thus, due to the legal framework, some CBD-containing fiber hemp is cultivated to extract CBD, from which THC is subsequently produced. From an economic point of view, it would be much more useful to grow THC-containing cannabis directly. Technically, the atoms in the molecules of THC and CBD are arranged exactly the same. Only one double bond between the two molecules is different. If a natural product is merely adapted in the chemistry laboratory, then these are partly synthetic products. However, if the ingredients already come from the test tube or petroleum, then it would be a fully synthetic product. Partially synthetic cannabinoids are also referred to as artificial cannabinoids. They are neither pure natural product nor are they wholly derived from the chemistry lab. At least Dronabinol, with its active ingredient THC, is said to have a vegetable or partially synthetic origin, depending on the process. Hundreds of exogenous cannabinoidsCannabinoids have only recently entered the medical focus of the public. Once people only knew about THC, many now know that CBD is also a cannabinoid and there are many more cannabinoids. At the same time, since the spice wave, it has been publicly known that synthetic cannabinoids exist. Nevertheless, many do not understand the scope of this group of substances. If so far at least 113 pytocannabinoids have been identified among others only in the cannabis plant, there are probably already hundreds of synthetic cannabinoids. These are not discovered, but created. As already mentioned, in the molecule only one double bond has to be different, so that it becomes a different substance and has a completely different effect. That's why the synthetic cannabinoids are much more dangerous than the natural ones. If cannabis is spoken in Germany, then the proven cases invariably go back to synthetic cannabinoids. With natural cannabinoids it is hardly possible to reach a lethal dose in practical life. Furthermore, there are cannabinoids, in which the scientists are still arguing, whether they sort these molecules in the category of cannabinoids or not. Thus, the cannabis plant contains many terpenes, e.g. make out the smell and contribute to a medical effect. There are molecules that could easily be considered as terpenes and as exogenous cannabinoids, since they have the same properties for both substance classes. The differences between the cannabinoidsCannabinoids are messenger substances, also called neurotransmitters, which dock in the body to the cannabinoid receptors and thereby trigger a reaction. This triggered reaction is thus the effect of cannabinoids. Just as with other receptors, different messenger substances can dock differently or have different durations in the body. Some cannabinoids are metabolized faster or more slowly and thus have less or more time to dock to a cannabinoid receptor or other receptors. Each material can only dock to specific receptors and then occupy them. During docking, no other messenger can dock at this point. If counterproductive soil substances degrade only slowly in the body and dock very strongly and at the same time for a long time to a receptor, then one has to wait, so to speak longer, until a normal state can be set again. The period of time in which damage can occur is much longer. In the case of natural cannabinoids, these problems are manageable, since humanity has had experience with them for millennia. For synthetically produced exogenous cannabinoids, this is anything but manageable, since any late effects would be delayed by name. For consumers who jump into the cold water without experience or proper sources of information, the risk of critical overdose or unknown intolerance is far higher than with natural cannabinoids. Source: BRUNGERT, Robert. Exogene Cannabinoide, 18 march 2018 Dostupné z: Source photo: 

Phytocannabinoids - purely vegetable

Renewable medicine"Phyto" comes from the Greek and means "plant". Cannabinoids are produced in the body, in some plants and also in some chemistry laboratories. The hot "endogenous cannabinoids" produced in the body, from the chemical laboratory "synthetic cannabinoids". There are also semisynthetic or artificial cannabinoids, which find their source material in the plants. The term phytocannabinoids explains that they are cannabinoids of plant origin that have not been artificially altered in their molecular structure. There are well over 100 phytocannabinoids in cannabis alone. In other plants, these are not or only in small numbers and low concentration contained. Who would like to win phytocannabinoids, would therefore decide for the plant genus cannabis. No proven deathsAt a lethal dose death occurs. For drugs of medicine, the lethal dose is determined in order to be able to deal with patients safer. With other substances, too, this lethal dose is being sought in order to be able to better assess it. Depending on the research, THC, one of the most common phytocannabinoids, would require hundreds of grams or even 1,500 pounds of cannabis to reach this lethal dose. These quantities would have to be absorbed within a very short time, which is hardly technically possible. It is conceivable that other phytocannabinoids with far lower concentrations could trigger such a lethal dose. They are also contained in cannabis at a lower concentration. However, the fact is that there is still no valid report on a cannabis death. There are reports of people who allegedly died of cannabis. Some were simply found no causes of death, but traces of THC, which then this "the cause of death" was. However, assumptions or insinuations are not valid evidence. With synthetic cannabinoids, even small amounts of active substance can trigger a lethal dose or leave lasting damage, which means that they should be regarded as a substance class with much greater care. Unfortunately, there are now hundreds, perhaps thousands, of people worldwide who have already died of synthetic cannabinoids. With a regulated cannabis market that allows adults to buy or grow their cannabis in good quality at acceptable prices, hardly any synthetic cannabinoids would be used. The research on phytocannabinoidsEven though more than 100 phytocannabinoids have been found in cannabis, research is still in its infancy. Just cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol are reasonably well researched. However, many cannabinoids that may have high medical potential have been virtually undetected. There are e.g. Phytocannabinoids in the hemp plant, which are found in the immature flowers or immature plants, but no longer in the mature. These cannabinoids can also have a very high medical potential. Since plants are currently allowed to mature for cannabis production, the cannabinoids on immature plants have not been much researched. But many other phytocannabinoids, which are not always or only in trace amounts in cannabis, have not received much attention yet. In many cases, it is assumed that only the female cannabis plant forms active substances and can be used medically. That's not true, even the male or hermaphrodite cannabis plant forms phytocannabinoids and other active ingredients. However, it forms smaller amounts of these drugs. But maybe there are active ingredients in male cannabis plants that are not found in females? If even the cannabis plant's roots, stems and leaves contain active ingredients and can be used medicinally independently of the cannabis flowers, cannabinoid research certainly does not address the issues. Source: BRUNGERT, Robert. Phytocannabinoide – rein pflanzlich. 23 march 2018,. Dostupné z: Source photo:

CBD and the Immune System - Can Cannabidiol Support the Immune System?

Colds, herpes, allergies - many complaints in everyday life, we lead back to the fact that our immune system does not work optimally. Sometimes it seems to let us down, sometimes it reacts stronger than it should. As scientific studies show, CBD could interfere with oil regulation: How does our immune system work?Our organism comes into daily contact with bacteria, viruses and environmental toxins. If foreign cells enter the body, we need an instance that distinguishes friend from enemy. This task is done by the human immune system. It's not a conduit network like our bloodstream and our nerve cells, but rather a communication network that involves cells of different types. They provide each other with information about potentially threatening substances and the state of health of tissues and organs. If a substance enters the system that is identified as hostile, certain signal substances (cytokines) initially trigger an inflammatory process. This alerts other immune cells, such as our leukocytes or killer cells. They have the ability to destroy and consume pathogens. Even infected body cells are destroyed by the defense cells. As efficient as it sounds - the human immune system is not always working optimally. Allergies arise when the immune system overreacts to certain plant substances. In contrast, autoimmune diseases develop when defense cells falsely attack their own body cells. Immune system and cannabinoids - where is the connection?Receptors, so "docking" for cannabinoids are located on many cells of the immune system. T cells, neutrophil granocytes, monocytes, NK cells and B cells have CB2 receptors to which cannabinoids can bind. If they do so, they attract other immune cells to a damaged site in the organism through chemical signals. At the same time, however, cannabinoids are also responsible for balancing the immune system and avoiding overreactions. This task is usually done by our endogenous cannabinoids, the endocannabinoids. However, if there are deficits or imbalances, herbal cannabinoids such as CBD can be helpful. The optimal function of our immune system depends directly on the balance of our endocannabinoid system. If the CB1 receptors in our body are strongly inhibited, the immune system may be impaired in its function. If the organism does not have endocannabinoids such as anandamide and 2-AG, it may lead to diseases such as irritable bowel, fibromyalgia or migraine. Scientists believe that supplementing herbal cannabinoids in these cases can promote good health. Source: CBD und das Immunsystem – kann Cannabidiol die Immunabwehr unterstützen? Apr 29,2019. Dostupné z: Source photo:

Regular pain: CBD helps

CBD relaxes and relieves crampsWhile most of the average 28-day cycle is relatively calm and normal, the uterine muscles begin to contract just before the menstrual period. These contractions interrupt blood flow in the abdomen. It is precisely this interruption that causes more pain in one woman and less pain in the other. Happy are those who do not suffer at all. In some girls and women, however, the pain is so unbearable that they therefore even fail in everyday life, so must report to the employer sick or can not go to sports. In Germany, therefore, many patients resort to analgesics such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen. Others prefer to take antispasmodic drugs from the pharmacy. However, this is more of a permanent solution with two eyes closed, as this type of medication has negative effects on the body. For example, they strain the kidneys when taken regularly. Some pain sufferers now stick electrodes instead to the skin. By light surges, the muscles should relax and provide relief. While some swear by it, others complain about the annoying feeling of having to walk around the bikini area with electrode stickers, where one can not move quite as freely during the days anyway. Often, young women are prescribed the pill to prevent the unpleasant side effects of menstruation. However, it is artificially intervened in the hormone balance to prevent ovulation. The cannabinoid CBD is according to the current state of research free of side effects. It naturally acts on the human endocannabinoid system. This expands throughout the body and even produces various cannabinoids to keep the immune system intact. However, this system is prone to disorders such as illness and stress - the latter is also caused by pain. By administering CBD in the form of oil or capsules, the inner balance can be restored. CBD has a relaxing, anti-spasmodic and anti-inflammatory effect. For menstrual problems, it is therefore a good treatment option. Since it contains virtually no THC and therefore does not have an intoxicating effect, women who suffer from period pain can obtain CBD legally and without a prescription. Different types of menstrual pain and their causes The female cycle is determined by different hormones. The goal is to prepare the body for possible reproduction. Therefore, the uterine lining builds up in the first half of the cycle. It is well supplied with blood and thick or short: ready for the implantation of the fertilized egg. However, if there is no fertilization and thus no pregnancy, the mucosa dissolves in the second half of the cycle after ovulation from the uterus. The excretion takes place during the period. After the menstrual period, the circulation starts again, so the menstrual pain occurs every month again. Generally, a distinction is made between primary and secondary menstrual pain. The primary menstrual pain falls into the category of "natural", which is pain that occurs during the menstrual period, without any pathological change in the female body. The women who suffer from primary periodic pain have been fighting this problem since puberty. Secondary menstrual pain primarily affects older women and is mostly due to illness. Changes in the female reproductive system often cause painful days. Such changes include, for example, endometriosis (small, benign growths in the abdomen), uterine infections, and ovarian cysts. Frequently by these diseases not only the intensity of bleeding increases, but also pain. In general, there are various factors, besides malformations or diseases, which can aggravate menstrual pain. These include a low body weight, an irregular or longer than average cycle, the consumption of alcohol and nicotine, the prevention of pregnancy with the help of the spiral, stress or other psychological causes. Symptoms of menstrual painMany readers know her too well - the typical symptoms of menstrual cramps: cramping and tearing in the abdomen. The pain can follow at short intervals, be regular or prolonged, and can be up to the back. Often, digestion is also affected during the period, so some women suffer from diarrhea or nausea. Even headaches can be part of the discomfort. Anyone who is in constant pain and uncomfortable will eventually get into a bad mood. In addition, fatigue, fatigue and lower concentration or performance are added to this. Many women would therefore just like to lie in the hot tub or with a hot water bottle on the stomach on the couch and wait for the first two, so the worst days, pass as quickly as possible. Different forms of CBD for menstrual pain Not only hot baths and hot water bottles relax the cramped uterus, but also sex. But after a suitable partner is not always and everywhere available and women can not spend hours in the bathroom, it makes sense to relax the body in other ways. CBD has anti-spasmodic properties, reduces stress and relaxes, and therefore relieves menstrual pain. Already Queen Victoria's doctor, Sir Joshua Reynolds, knew about the beneficial effects of the cannabis plant and ordered the majesty a suitable cannabis tincture against her menstrual pain. Women in Asia and Africa have also been relying on natural pain relief from cannabis products for centuries. In our society, the use and research of cannabinoids has long been neglected by the illegalization of the hemp plant. However, countries such as the US and Canada are now turning around and the research and production of various cannabis products is evidently progressing inexorably. Europe is slowly catching up. The US actress Whoopi Goldberg has recognized the trend and together with the food manufacturer Maya Elisabeth sells medical cannabis products under the name "whoopi & maya", which are tailored to women with regular pains. In addition to cannabis tinctures and ointments, the ladies also offer a bath additive and chocolate with the corresponding active ingredients. In liberal California and the US state of Colorado, pain-stricken women enjoy the so-called cannabis tampons, which are marketed under the name of Foria Relief. Actually, this product is not really a tampon, but a suppository, which is introduced before using a tampon. Within 15 to 30 minutes, the suppository dissolves, so that the active ingredients are absorbed by the vaginal mucosa. In Germany, the suppositories are not yet available because they contain besides ten milligrams of legal CBD also 60 milligrams of psychoactive THC. Many women reported having a relaxing effect and pain relief after about eight minutes. The THC can be detected by the usual drug tests in the body. Medically sound studies on Foria Relief are pending. We also have medical cannabis products on prescription from the pharmacy. These are mainly used in palliative medicine. In menstrual pain, it would be extremely difficult to find a doctor and a health insurance company who would participate in a prescription. The legal alternative is CBD. In the form of oil, you can either take cannabidiol orally or drip one or two drops on a tampon to make it easier to get it right where it's needed. Instructions for buying CBD productsTo minimize the unwanted ingestion of any pollutants, attention should be paid to the bio-seal when purchasing CBD products. Oils should contain at least 99 percent pure CBD. When manufacturing, it is important to keep an eye on ensuring that the products are as close as possible to the GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice for Medicines) and ISO standards so that they are of a certain quality. Court decision regarding cannabis use against menstrual painAt this point the readers should not be deprived of the court order of 4 January 2017 from Baden-Württemberg: A woman who regularly consumed cannabis for six to seven days a month - the intoxicating THC variant, not the pure CBD - wanted to deprive the driving license authority of their driving license. In an urgent procedure, however, the Freiburg administrative court ruled that the woman was allowed to keep her driver's license for the time being. The reasoning was that the person concerned would firstly have not combined consumption and driving, and secondly, they would not take cannabis regularly. Even if the consumption was monthly over several days, the woman did not take THC-containing products on the menstruation-free days and therefore did not fulfill the conditions necessary for a driving license withdrawal.The decision may be understood as a positive sign in the direction of cannabis for pain relief. Source: SOMMER, Kathryn. Regelschmerzen: CBD schafft Abhilfe. 21 Feb, 2018 Dostupné z: Source photo:

The function of endocannabinoids

Endogenous cannabinoids are produced in the body. Also exogenous phytocannabinoids from the cannabis plant or synthetic cannabinoids from the laboratory can be supplied to the body from the outside. These exogenous cannabinoids attach to the cannabinoid receptors and thus have an effect. First of all, this is about the function of endocannabinoids in our body, though the subject could certainly fill a book. In our body, thousands or even more functions take place side by side at the same time. There are organs in the body, but there are also small organs in many cells that perform functions. All this needs to be controlled so that it does not become "too little" or "too much". Simplified, it can be said that endocannabinoids in the organism take over a very important part of these "control functions" and that we thus find a "healthy center". This applies, on the one hand, to unconscious biochemical processes with which, for example, the feeling of hunger or sleep can be controlled. Of course, we realize that we are getting hungry or sleepy and react to these important impulses. But even with the feeling of pain, anxiety, aggression or mood, endocannabinoids bring us back to the center. Endocannabinoids than the other neurotransmittersThere is an incredible abundance of chemical substances in every higher organism, all of which have their functions. Neurotransmitters are messengers. A nerve cell releases them to trigger a reaction in another nerve cell. When a nerve cell perceives something or takes damage, it releases the appropriate neurotransmitter, which then triggers the impulse in the next nerve cell to pass on the information. Thus, information about the nerve tracts from the little toe can penetrate into the brain with almost no loss of time. Normal neurotransmitters are formed and released as needed. Endocannabinoids are formed as needed and distributed at the same time. Excessive impulses can not only drive pain patients to madness. Pain, just like anxiety or stress, is something very positive at first because it alerts the organism. After all, this must act quickly and quickly notice the problem. However, if too much pain, anxiety or stress, the organism can no longer follow the right actions on the impulse. Those who simply freeze in fear, respond to a dangerous moment usually not right. Because of the endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors have the property of not only relaying the message from the impulse. You can also answer the impulse. So you can soothe the "source of stimulation", so that the over-stimulation fails and the organism can react more meaningful to the impulse. Endocannabinoids are therefore very important messengers, with which body functions or sensations take place, but no excess occurs. Endocannabinoids in healthIn health, "mediocrity" is, as it were, the prerequisite for being healthy and staying healthy. Much just wants to be detrimental to a defect or excess and is not questionable. This applies when eating, e.g. for fat, without it just being not. So it has to be a certain amount of fat, which composition should bring a certain quality for the body. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are much healthier than the saturated fatty acids. Too much fat is unhealthy at some point, too little too. Many illnesses come from a "too little" or "too much". If the endocannabinoid system is disturbed and too few endocannabinoids are formed, they can bring the organism less well into the healthy center. Many diseases are due to search "imbalances" in the endocannabinoid system or cause search "imbalances". Here it can help if the right exogenous cannabinoids are added to the endocannabinoid system. There are also special living conditions. A painful back pain or a part of the body has been operated on and hurts since then. It can therefore be about traumatizing events. The actual healthy person takes damage over time, where his actually healthy endocannabinoid system does not lead to the middle anymore. Again, it may help if the right exogenous cannabinoids are supplied. Physical or mental pain can be reduced. Effects of EndocannabinoidsThe areas of action of the endocannabinoids actually comprise the entirety of the unconscious and the conscious bodily functions. Whether it is about mood, metabolism, digestion, appetite, sleeping, pain, the elimination of inflammation, immune functions or memory: without endocannabinoids, the organism can not find the mediocrity. Endocannabinoids are somewhat superior to the exogenous cannabinoids in that they are released in the right places in the body. So they are work in the right places. If exogenous cannabinoids are added, they are absorbed into the bloodstream via the digestive system, the lung or under the tongue. In this way, they reach the whole organism and therefore affect the whole organism. In some situations this can be detrimental. Source: BRUNGERT, Robert. Die Funktion der Endocannabinoide17 Feb, 2018,Dostupné z: Source photo:

CBD as a versatile remedy in sports

But not only in medicine promises CBD new treatment options. The properties of cannabidiol can be used, for example, for faster regeneration or performance enhancement in sport. Prominent examples from the US could establish CBD as a supplement and remedy in sport. What is cannabidiol?Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of over several hundred cannabinoids in the hemp plant and the second best known besides THC. Especially medical users became aware of the therapeutic properties of CBD. CBD has no psychoactive effect and can even mitigate the high produced by THC. Nowadays you can find varieties on the market, which were bred especially for their high CBD content and more and more seed banks jump on the CBD train. With their Super Silver Haze CBD, Greenhouse Seed Company released a popular CBD version of the popular classic with a THC: CBD ratio of 1: 1. In addition, the breeders of CBD crew inspired many patients with their variety CBD Therapy, which has a THC: CBD ratio of 1:20 (!) And thus has a particularly high medical potential. However, CBD can not only be consumed in the form of flowers. Many manufacturers offer CBD oils in different dosages or creams with CBD from organically grown hemp plants. A very pure form of cannabinoid is CBD crystals, a white powder produced by extraction with CO2.  CBD in sportsAs already mentioned, CBD has a very high medical potential, which can also be used profitably in sport. Many hobby and competitive athletes report that CBD increases their focus when taken before a training session and thus they can achieve better performance. The stress-relieving effect of CBD can increase mental performance, thus making exercises or units more accurate. This reduces the risk of injury and over-exertion. Excessive physical stress often causes muscle pain or painful muscle tension. CBD binds, inter alia, to the TRPV-1 receptor, which is responsible for pain perception, inflammation and the regulation of temperature. As a result, CBD can relieve pain such as muscle soreness or tension to get fit for the next session. In addition, cannabidiol stimulates the adenosine receptor and therefore plays an important role in cardiovascular function and blood circulation. Thus, we have arrived at another huge advantage of CBD in the application in the sport. Namely the faster regeneration. The relaxing effect can serve as Muskelrelachsans and shorten the recovery phase between training sessions. By stimulating the blood flow, the muscles are supplied with more oxygen again and can be more stressed or recover better. Even nausea after a hard workout can be treated with cannabidiol. Prominent examples from the USAAbove all, professional top athletes are under constant stress from training and competitions and expose their bodies to extreme stress. Not infrequently a serious injury is the result of a auspicious career. Not to mention the huge sums of money used in professional sports. In the American Fottballliga NFL one has therefore always resorted to strong painkillers such as Percocet and Vicodin, to suppress the pain of an injury. Not infrequently complain players after taking on stomach ache, nausea and / or fatigue. Not to mention the danger of dependence, which is almost inevitable with such strong resources and regular intake. Former quarterback Jake Plummer is now campaigning for allowable use of CBD for recreational purposes in the NFL. With the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect cannabidiol is the natural alternative to strong (prescription) analgesics and no side effects or the risk to become dependent. According to a 2011 Washington University study in St. Louis, 52% of retired NFL players resorted to opiates during their careers. This means more than half of the pharmaceutical industry's former professionals fall victim in the US. It is estimated that at least 50% of NFL active players defend themselves against the abuse of potent painkillers and treat themselves with some form of cannabis as a medicine. In the American Basketball League (NBA), it even estimated an 80%. At least some of the players seem to have understood the problem and are switching to the natural alternative. Also in other sports the positive effects of CBD seem to have spread. Last year, UFC fighter Nate Diaz appeared at a press conference after a fight with a vaporizer. When asked about this, Diaz explained that it is cannabidiol and continues: "It helps against pain and inflammation and supports the healing process. It makes your life a better place. " Application of CBDCBD can not only be consumed in the form of flowers. There are CBD oils with different concentrations, CBD creams for application on the skin or the already mentioned CBD crystals. Either way, CBD not only has the potential for professional athletes to relieve pain after hard physical exertion and is THE natural alternative to strong painkillers that have a lot of side effects and the risk of dependency. It remains to be seen what will emerge in the future in this area, but with advancing useful research and prominent representatives, this wonderful plant may soon be used in sport as an effective means of relieving pain and increasing performance. Source: BOEDEFELD, Christian. CBD als vielseitig einsetzbares Heilmittel im Sport.. Dostupné z: Source photo:

What is cannabidiol?

Cannabidiol (abbreviated: CBD) is the second most abundant cannabinoid in hemp, after the main active ingredient THC. It therefore belongs to the phytocannabinoids and occurs mainly in the hemp with an amount of up to 2% in the flowers.Cannabis indica-dominant strains have a higher CBD content than strains dominated by cannabis sativa.CBD taken alone does not cause any intoxication - it is not essentially psychotropic (with the exception of the slightly sedating effect) - and no relevant (psychic) ​​side effects.The individual effects of the substance, as well as those of other cannabinoids, have not been fully explored. So there is room for discovery of other medical effects. The effect in isolated form is also to be considered differently than in combination with many other substances of the cannabis plant (for example over 100 cannabinoids alone, as well as flavonoids, terpenes, terpenoids).CBD mediates its effects via both the CB1 and CB2 receptors. These are receptors of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), are activated or inhibited by the body's own cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) and influence many physiological processes; Among other things, the EC system has an involvement in diseases of the metabolism, disorders of the nervous system and the psyche, pain and inflammatory processes, cancers and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, to name just a few examples.CBD can be understood as mediating the effects of THC, as it enhances the analgesic, mind-altering and euphoric properties of THC; On the other hand, it acts as an antagonist by inhibiting the increase in appetite caused by THC, increasing the heart rate as well as any unpleasant psychological effects (increased anxiety, anxiety, paranoia).For a long time, cannabis breeders were primarily concerned with keeping the CBD content as low as possible in order to achieve a better "high". So it is in many popular cannabis strains at less than one percent. Meanwhile, however, there is a clear trend of medical use in the direction of high-CBD strains, so CBD-rich varieties, which come up with a significant medical potential, without really psychedelic effect.The effect here is more towards plättend, body-accentuated and pleasantly soothing on the psyche. Therefore, CBD-rich cannabis strains (e.g., in ratio (CBD-THC) 1: 1 or even 2: 1) are ideally suited for treatment of, for example, muscle spasms, sleep disorders, and anxiety.CBD is not regulated in Germany, Austria and Switzerland and is absolutely legal in its pure form. Source: FÖRSTER, Hendrik. Was ist Cannabidiol? 13 Jan, 2015. Dostupné z: Source photo: 

The endocannabinoid system: How THC works in the body

The beginningsModern cannabinoid research, which began about 50 years ago, was initially initiated to understand the effect of an illicit drug. After the chemistry of the plant and the pharmacological and psychological effects of THC were at least partially understood in the 60s and 70s, the field of research changed. From the mid-80s, research into the mode of action of THC and other cannabinoids in the hemp plant in the body and thus the discovery of the endocannabinoid system began. It soon became clear that this body's regulatory system is involved in many bodily functions.In 1964, the complete elucidation of the chemical structure of the delta-9-THC of the hemp plant was achieved. Approximately 30 years later, the first endogenous cannabinoids were discovered, arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA) in 1992, and arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in 1995. Since then, research on the effects of endocannabinoids on human health and disease has become more widespread.Endocannabinoid receptorsIn 1987, an American research group was able to show that there are specific binding sites in the brain for THC. Their distribution in the brain is consistent with the pharmacological properties of THC and other (synthetic) cannabinoids that cause psychic effects. In 1990, it was finally possible to decode the chemical structure of the first cannabinoid receptor in the brain. A short time later, a second cannabinoid receptor was detected in the spleen.The cannabinoid-1 receptorOriginally it had been thought that the CB1 receptor (cannabinoid-1 receptor) was found only in the central nervous system, so it was considered a brain cannabinoid receptor. However, it occurs in many organs. The CB1 receptor is one of the most common receptors in the brain. The highest concentrations are found, among others, in the basal ganglia of the brain, which play a role in the coordination of movements, or in the hippocampus, which is important for the conversion of short-term information into long-term memory contents or for spatial orientation. CB1 receptors are found in many regions that play an important role in sensory perception (taste, smell, touch, hearing), mental performance, and motivation. For example, when CB1 receptors in the brain are activated by THC, sensory perception increases. In this way, the taste and smell of food and listening to music intensifies.In contrast, there are no CB1 receptors in the brainstem responsible, inter alia, for the control of respiration and the cardiovascular system. Today it is assumed that there are no deaths from overdose of cannabis or THC in healthy persons, because the functions of the brainstem can not be significantly affected by such an overdose.The protective function of the CB1 receptorCannabinoid 1 receptors are located at the end of nerve cells, where a signal is passed through the gap between two nerve cells from one nerve cell to another. The most important function of the CB1 receptors in the nervous system is the inhibition of excessive signal transmission by messenger substances in the brain, so-called neurotransmitters. Activation of CB1 receptors inhibits overactivity of all neurotransmitters in the brain (glutamate, serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, etc.). Thus, the endocannabinoid system has multiple protective functions against over-excitement in the central nervous system and helps to balance the activity of the brain. This explains the broad spectrum of action of THC or cannabis. When THC binds to CB1 receptors, too much activity is inhibited in the pain control circuits of the brain, thereby relieving pain. If neurotransmitter activity is too high in regions responsible for nausea and vomiting, activation of the CB1 receptor may reduce this increased activity. By similar mechanisms, muscle spasticity, epileptic seizures, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, hyperactivity and other disease symptoms are attenuated by activation of the endocannabinoid system.The cannabinoid 2 receptorOriginally it was thought that CB2 receptors only occur in the immune system outside the brain. However, they were eventually detected throughout the central nervous system, especially in microglial cells, albeit at a lower concentration than CB1 receptors. Microglial cells are crucial for brain immune defense.The body of humans and other mammals has a highly developed immune system that protects it from attack by viruses, bacteria and other potentially harmful external influences and aims to prevent, mitigate and repair the damage. The endocannabinoid system is part of this protective mechanism via its CB2 receptors.Endogenous cannabinoidsThe discovery of cannabinoid receptors suggested that there are endogenous substances that bind to these receptors. In fact, such an endocannabinoid was first detected in 1992. Its discoverers called it anandamide from the Sanskrit word "Ananda" for bliss and "amide" because of its chemical structure. In 1995, a second endocannabinoid, 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol) was discovered. These two endocannabinoids are best researched so far. Today it is assumed that about 200 substances that resemble the discovered endocannabinoids in their chemical structure.Unlike most messenger substances (neurotransmitters) in the brain, they are not produced by the nerve cell, which transmits a signal to another nerve cell, but by the nerve cell that receives the signal. If the signal, ie the concentration of the neurotransmitters, is too large, endocannabinoids are increasingly formed which, via the activation of CB1 receptors, reduce this excessive neurotransmitter activity.Different endocannabinoids can bind not only to cannabinoid receptors, but also to a putative CB3 receptor, the GPR55 receptor, vanilloid receptors, and other receptors.Proteins for the formation and degradation of end cannabinoidsThe proteins responsible for the synthesis of endocannabinoids have so-called N-acyltransferase (NAT), N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase (NAPE-PLD) or diaclglycirollipase (DAGL). The most important protein for the degradation of anandamide is fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and for the degradation of 2-AG monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL).Functions of the endocannabinoid system in the brainThe endocannabinoid system plays a role in the brain in anxiety and depression, in the regeneration of nerve cells, and it affects the reward system of the brain. It affects our mental capacity, ability to learn and memory. In this context, the eradication of unpleasant experiences by the endocannabinoid system is utilized in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. The effects of endocannabinoids in the brain are mainly mediated via CB1 receptors, but also in part via CB2 receptors on glial cells.Many studies show that activators of the CB1 receptor, such as THC, affect short-term memory. This effect can be prevented by high doses of CBD.Interestingly, however, memory loss could be reduced with age by activating the endocannabinoid system. For example, mice lacking CB1 receptors showed accelerated age-related mental performance deficits. They also lost important nerve cells in the hippocampus, which was accompanied by inflammation of the nerve cells. These findings suggest that CB1 receptors in the hippocampus may protect against age-related decline in mental performance.conclusionThe endocannabinoid system, with its endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors, and proteins responsible for the formation and degradation of endocannabinoids such as anandamide and 2-AG, has central biological functions in the central nervous system and in many other organs. Disruptions to the normal functioning of this system can lead to corresponding disorders of organ function. In diseases, a specific effect on the endocannabinoid system may be useful, for example, by inhibiting the degradation of endocannabinoids or by the administration of herbal cannabinoids such as THC.There is also evidence that certain diseases such as migraine, epilepsy or irritable bowel syndrome are associated with reduced activity of the endocannabinoid system. One speaks of Endocannabinoidmangel illnesses. The ingestion of plant cannabinoids might then compensate for this decreased activity. Source: GROTENHERMEN, Dr. Franjo. Das Endocannabinoidsystem: Wie THC seine Wirkung im Körper ausübt.15 Aug, 2016,Dostupné z: Source photo: 

Cannabis products for external use

We now know that the use of cannabis has health benefits. We can treat bowel disease with cannabis, fight colon cancer or relieve spasmodic symptoms. In addition, the effect of cannabis is also applicable to a great many other ailments, but the effects have not been completely investigated. Whether one eventually smokes or otherwise consumes the grass is up to the consumer.If you do not want to smoke, you can inject it through the skin, in the form of oil, through the food, or in finished foods. The possibilities are more or less open to us. A first step has already been taken with the legalization by prescription, even if it is only really recognized and serious diseases. The normal migraine patient will hardly get legal cannabis. That's a pity, but maybe that will change. Today, however, we are enriching ourselves with yet another effect of cannabis, namely the positive effects on our skin. The products are largely legally available.Effectiveness of THC and CBD confirmedClinical trials and numerous laboratory tests have now confirmed the efficacy of cannabis ingredients. It was investigated to what extent cannabis products can help against skin redness, inflammation, psoriasis, open wounds, acne or other skin diseases. Of course, the cannabis does not need to be smoked, but can be purchased legally in lotions, balms, oils or patches. We are looking forward to a product test in this regard and hope to be able to say more about exact products soon.Actually, people knew back in antiquity that cannabis and certain plant components help against skin diseases. For this reason, cannabis was mixed with other plants, herbs or animal extracts and prepared ointments. In today's laboratory tests, the effect was confirmed, because the cannabinoids increase the biochemical defenses of the skin. Unfortunately, we can not say much about exactly how cannabinoids do this and stimulate the healing process, because unfortunately research is not yet far enough. But the fact is that it helps and acts against a disease infestation of the skin.Acne and skin irritations - effects and resultsCannabinoids can reduce and even completely combat inflammation in the skin's sebaceous glands. Skin glands ensure that the skin is coated with sufficient natural fats. If the glands produce too much sebum, skin disorders or acne often occur. Cannabinoids have been proven to help against acne, eczema and other skin disorders. And again it was the mice that proved these theories. However, it is not just the cannabinoids that are good for our skin. The extracts of cannabis seeds, for example, reduced skin redness of subjects. These seeds contain proteins, oils and antioxidants to help against pimples.Skin care products are experiencing an upswingCannabis-enriched lotions are increasingly being sold and more and more people are experiencing the beneficial effects. Balsams, oils, gels or transdermal patches containing CBD, THC or terpene can be purchased. The cannabis preparations contain various substances, so that the skin can absorb the essential ingredients well. For example, the creams contain certain herbs to actively ensure intake. The products can be applied directly to the inflamed area and locally controlled.Will not you get high on it?No, because the ointments do not reach the bloodstream or the nervous system, whereby no high-effect can be experienced. The contained cannabinoids can bind with the CB2 receptors and act on the peripheral level.-> If you like, you can make your own CBD ointment yourself. All you need is cutaways, stalks and a few small buds. These are enriched with coconut oil and beeswax. We will work out a more exact recipe and of course publish it. Dermatitis and psoriasis are the perfect areas of application and you will see fast results. But even with sore muscles or against arthritis and for other pain relief help the homemade ointments.Patients and doctors should go new waysThe experiences of physicians and patients are becoming more and more frequent and also various official studies are proving more and more the positive effects on different processes. Relieving skin problems could be a breakthrough for cannabis products. In the US, various cannabis products are already being used to relieve symptoms such as fibromyalgia, ALS, sunburn, open wounds or migraine. The modes of action are antibacterial and anti-inflammatory, the properties of cannabis there are widely recognized. What works there can not be wrong here, right?Found a new drug?Now another active substance is to be held responsible for the positive effects on our organism, namely the so-called CBG. An active ingredient that can help against acne and skin aging.Of course, we must point out here that cannabis is not a panacea and you should always discuss your treatment with a doctor. At least you could ask in advance if self treatment with various cannabis products makes sense. Source: DIRSCHL, Jenny. Cannabisprodukte zur äußeren Anwendung. 17 feb, 2017. Dostupné z: photo:

CBD (cannabidiol) in ancient Egypt

Often, cannabidiol is reported as a new phenomenon. Due to the growing cultural acceptance of the hemp plant, CBD has experienced a tremendous increase in popularity over the last decade. In fact, the cannabinoid was used much earlier by one of the Earth's oldest civilizations - Ancient Egypt.Cannabidiol - a wonder drug?CBD is a phytocannabinoid - a natural, plant-produced compound. In this case, the compound comes from the hemp plant. In 1964, the Israeli scientist Dr. Raphael Mechoulam the psychoactive substance THC. The now 88-year-old Professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Natural Products at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem is recognized as one of the most important researchers in cannabis research by discovering the most important ingredients of the cannabis plant. In addition, it has played a significant role in Israel's pioneering role in researching the therapeutic properties of cannabinoids and in medical applications.For example, by altering the concentration of neurotransmitters in the brain, the effect of cannabidiol can affect pain, contribute to relaxation, or help with sleep problems. There are reports of the anti-inflammatory effect of topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis.originCBD is made from the hemp plant that has been cultivated by humans for thousands of years for its versatile fibers, seeds and flowers. The oldest finds come from China around 2800 BC. Chr., Where one manufactured ropes from hemp fibers.Presumably, however, the plant has been used earlier and there is evidence of its use in traditional Chinese medicine, which continues to decline. Over time, the hemp plant in the paper, textile, food and medical industries became more important worldwide, until the cultivation of hemp was taxed so heavily in the US in 1937 with the Marijuana Tax Act that it was barely affordable for farmers more rewarded.Holy hempSeshat was an ancient Egyptian deity of wisdom, writing and knowledge. She was seen as a writer and mathematician. The deity depicted as a woman often wore a panther skin a staff and a headband, over which a green star is depicted, which many researchers interpret as hemp bloom.The Ebers Papyrus is a medical script from Ancient Egypt. It is one of the oldest surviving texts and contains texts on medical topics with a wide range of descriptions of diseases and their symptoms and diagnoses. In addition, the papyrus contains tips for the treatment of various ailments and the preparation of remedies.The uses of cannabis for medical purposes recorded there date from 1700 BC. Various texts describe the application and preparation of several cannabis recipes. Thus, tinctures of cannabis and other herbs and plants to help with glaucoma, relieve nail problems or help in the form of vaginal suppositories from cannabis and honey at birth. Also in the coffins of mummies researchers found remains of the hemp plant, which were given to the person as an important tool on the journey.Cannabis from EgyptWhen Napoleon besieged Egypt during the Egyptian expedition from 1798 to 1801, French soldiers came into contact with hashish. It is believed that they took the hashish to Europe, which made it well known and appreciated.Although cannabis is illegal in Egypt and consumption and cultivation are severely punished, the historical significance and use of beneficial and medicinal plants suggest that hemp has played an important role in ancient Egypt. Perhaps the increasing research into medicinal properties can help bring hemp back to the center of society.Source: BOEDEFELD, Christian. CBD (Cannabidiol) im alten Ägypten.28 Mai, 2019. Dostupné z: Source photo: