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Whether acute or chronic - CBD relieves pain

Pain has many facesIn Germany, several million people live with chronic pain. The published numbers fluctuate. Ten to 25 percent of all Germans are exposed to regular pain - this corresponds to about eight to 20 million people. The statistics are therefore relatively inaccurate, because many pain patients do not go to the doctor with their suffering. Some are afraid of being laughed at, others have given up their fight because they have not gotten better after a long odyssey, yet others do not want to be permanently dependent on harmful medicines.The reasons for pain are so complex that they can not all be listed here. Medicine distinguishes between acute and chronic pain. Acute pain occurs suddenly and does not last very long. They are even useful because they signal to the body that something is wrong. Only then can the cause be identified and remedied. Chronic pain starts from a minimum of three to six months. They are no longer useful, but reduce the quality of life of the person affected. Frequently a chronic pain is caused by inflammation, tension, chronic illness or nerve damage. Even acute pain can be attributed to such causes. However, they are also often caused by injuries - both internal and external - or illnesses. If the cause of acute pain is not resolved quickly, there is a risk that acute pain will turn into chronic pain. In addition, strong, persistent pain sensitizes the body to further pain. The nerves react "exaggerated" in the episode, even if the cause of the initial pain has already been eliminated. Whether a pain becomes chronic or not depends, among other things, on the patient's disposition, family environment and mental state.CBD has been shown to be effective against pain in several studies. The Cannabinoid combats several causes of pain, rather than simply suppressing the feeling of pain, the latter also belongs to the repertoire of cannabidiol.CBD fights painIn tissue injury, CBD increases the concentration of anandamide in the body. This occurs through the interaction of the cannabinoid with the receptors of the human endocannabinoid system. Ananadamide is an endogenous endocannabinoid that is directly produced by the body, which directly affects the pain. The more anandamide in the organism or around the injured area, the better the pain relief. Ananadamide binds to the CB1 receptor (cannabinoid-binding receptor) and to the TRPV1 (a vanilloid) receptor, where it immediately combats the pain. This finding was made by scientists in China in 2010, when they performed experiments on mice.CBD helps against inflammationInflammation is often the cause of pain. Inflamed tissue increases the number of free radicals. These are dangerous for the body, as they have, among other things, the property of damaging cells. CBD is an antioxidant. In this function, it has a similar effect to vitamins A, C and E: they trap free radicals and thus render them harmless.In addition, CBD also has an anti-inflammatory effect per se. For example, a study by GWPharmaceuticals showed that CBD's properties can help fight inflammatory conditions in the intestinal tract, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes and nausea.Researchers at the University of Mississippi found that CBD reduces oxidative stress and helps fight inflammation. Many other studies - such as those of the scientists of the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda (USA) - all led to the same result: Cannabidiol inhibits inflammation. In Bethesda, researchers also confirmed that CBD works effectively against neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain is caused by dysfunction or nerve injury and can sometimes be very severe.CBD protects the nervesCannabidiol not only works against neuropathic pain, but has been shown to protect against the death of nerve cells - such as ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, Huntington's disease and other chronic nervous disorders. The neuroprotective (nerve-protective) effect of CBD has been demonstrated both in living organisms and in test tubes. Apparently, anandamide and 2-AG (2-arachidonylglycerol, another endocannabinoid) play an important role. In a traumatic brain injury, substances are released that can lead to secondary brain damage. In 2002 Mechoulem et al. Annanadamide and 2-AG can inhibit the action of harmful substances. The endocannabinoid system together with the cannabinoids thus takes over a protective function here. As described above, CBD contributes to the proliferation of anandamide in the body and thus protects the nerves. CBD relaxes the body and works against stressWhile the cannabinoid THC works primarily on the psyche, CBD has a relaxing and regulating effect on the body. Cannabidiol has an anticonvulsant effect, which is why it is sometimes used to combat epilepsy. Tense muscles often cause pain such as back, head, menstrual and other pains. But also CBD has positive effects on the psyche: It can be used well for the treatment of depression and schizophrenia. But it also helps against insomnia and stress. Stress is the cause of many pain disorders. Anyone who manages to reduce his stress often notices an accompanying pain relief. CBD combats the causesIn addition to inflammation, stress, tension and nerve disorders, CBD can be used against many other diseases. To name just a few:sleep disordersBurnoutanxiety disordersepilepsyschizophreniaNausea and vomitingDependence on addictive substancesParkinsonCrohn's diseasearthritisdifferent cancersspasticityasthmaCBD not only combats the pain as symptoms of disease, but acts - as a variety of different studies have revealed - against the causes themselves. For this reason alone, cannabidiol is likely to be a healthy alternative to the synthetic drugs of the pharmaceutical giants in the long term. These usually only suppress the pain. For the fight against causes additional medicines must be taken. Most painkillers and most prescription medicines, which are not natural but man-made, are harmful to the liver and kidneys - especially if taken over a long period of time. CBD, on the other hand, does not have a great health-endangering side-effect because it comes from nature and is very similar to human cannabinoids. Unfortunately, CBD research is still in its infancy. There are first drugs based on CBD. Overall, however, the science knows too little about the exact modes of action of cannabidiol. Questions such as "What helps CBD?" Could already be clarified well. But on the "How exactly does CBD?" There are only insufficient results. In the future, CBD is likely to play a bigger role in medicine - the current state of knowledge suggests strongly. Even though there are only very few CBD drugs worldwide so far, every human being in this country has the opportunity to treat themselves with CBD oil and other CBD products. CBD is not prescription, therefore legally available. For safety, always consult a doctor who is familiar with CBD. Application and dosage vary from person to person. In principle, with a little patience, everyone will find the right dose for themselves, as long as he starts small and slowly increases it until the desired effect begins. This makes CBD a good supplement to conventional pain therapy. With a bit of luck, some pain patients can even replace their existing funds with CBD altogether. A trial (under medical supervision) would be worth it. Source: SOMMER, Kathrin. Ob akut oder chronisch – CBD lindert Schmerzen.  13 Apr 2018 Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/cbd-in-der-medizin/ob-akut-oder-chronisch-cbd-lindert-schmerzen/ Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

Cannabis in the fight against epilepsy

CBD in anxiety disordersA number of case reports and studies show that CBD can reduce anxiety. In a study from 2017 by the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil, administration of CBD reduced anxiety in healthy individuals in a dose-dependent manner. The subjective anxiety was reduced with 300 mg CBD, but not with 100 and 900 mg CBD in a frightening situation (public speaking test). The mean dose was thus the most effective. The same researchers from Brazil investigated the effect of CBD on patients with generalized social anxiety disorder in a test that simulated speaking in a public situation. Three groups were compared: 12 healthy volunteers as a control group without medication; 12 patients with anxiety who received a single dose of CBD (600 mg) and 12 who received placebo. Previous treatment with CBD significantly reduced anxiety, mental disabilities and discomfort during speech. CBD also reduced the mental tension before the speech.At the Psychedelic Science Conference in San Francisco, April 19-24, 2017, a large case series of 136 patients was presented demonstrating that CBD, even in low doses of 40 to 50 mg, could be useful in treating anxiety.. Cannabis has both pro- and anti-convulsive effectsAt the congress of the DGN (German Society of Neurology) 2016 in Mannheim, however, Professor Heidrun Potschka warned against eating phytocannabinoids in an uncontrolled manner in order to combat epilepsy. According to experience reports of some epilepsy patients, they would often have had a seizure after eating a joint. In these cases, cannabis was thus proconvulsive, spasm-promoting. As a justification, she first gave the current state of science: The cannabinoid-binding receptor CB1, which is part of the ECS, inhibits overactive synapses via a feedback loop. CB1 is presynaptic. If the overactive synapses release too many neurotransmitters, the postsynapse causes the release of endocannabinoids, which bind to the CB1 receptor and thus restrict the production of neurotransmitters. This process happens in both inhibitory and excitatory connections. Potschka believes that it would therefore depend on the current state of the brain whether the CB1 agonist THC would be more spasm-promoting or antispasmodic. Exactly to this topic is not yet known. It should not be left unmentioned that Potschka is employed at the Pharmacological Institute of the LMU Munich and may well represent her opinion from a pharmacological point of view and with corresponding interests. The cannabis plant not only has THC as an active ingredient, but also many other compounds that can have a positive or negative effect on convulsions. For the most part, science is still in the dark. Currently, in epilepsy research, the focus is not primarily on THC but on its antagonist, cannabidiol. There were consistently positive results with CBD. Cannabis: Studies show positive effects in epilepsyVarious studies worldwide - both human and animal - have now shown that the intake of cannabinoids counteract the onset of epileptic seizures. In addition, it has been shown that it is not only acute epileptic seizures that can be reduced by the administration of cannabinoids, but that the herbal active ingredients can also provide effective protection against the development of epilepsy. In addition, cannabinoids are neuroprotective. That means they protect the nerves. In addition, they are likely to interfere with excessive release of glutamate, which can damage the brain and be released during an epileptic seizure. Especially CBD is currently on everyone's lips when it comes to effective drugs for epilepsy - even if THC can demonstrably prevent seizures. The side effects of CBD are very manageable. Especially drowsiness and loss of appetite should be mentioned here. Another positive side-effect of CBD in the case of epilepsy is that it may potentiate the effects of conventional epilepsy drugs such as carbamazepine, diazepam, felbamate, gabapentin, phenobarbital, topiramate and valproic acid. The results of a study strongly suggest this. However, in-depth knowledge is still pending. It would be conceivable in the future that CBD could be used in drug form specifically for such reinforcement. Currently, cannabidiol is mainly as so-called "orphan drug", so approved as an orphan drug, and only for a limited number of epilepsy forms, such as: Dravet syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and tuberous sclerosis. Orphan drugs are subject to strong regulatory restrictions and may only be marketed for very rare diseases. Since CBD is available legally and without a prescription, as long as it is not offered in the form of a drug, but as a kind of dietary supplement, a large number of epilepsy patients who have treated themselves with cannabidiol report positive effects of the herbal active ingredient. The incidence of seizures has decreased in many cases with the use of CBD, which is consistent with findings from other studies on CBD and epilepsy. Outlook: Cannabinoids as an alternative medication for epilepsyDespite less critical voices in part opposing the use of cannabinoids in the treatment of epilepsy, science continues to provide hope-rich insights into cannabis and epilepsy. The first step towards the approval of drugs containing cannabinoids has already been made. Given the current research efforts, a considerable number of additional medicines may well be expected in the not too distant future. Whether the cannabinoids are then synthetically produced or taken from nature remains to be seen. However, it is clear that phytocannabinoids, which are not produced in the laboratory, are better tolerated than man-made compounds. With the active ingredients of the cannabis plant might even make a breakthrough in epilepsy treatment. It is - as so often - not least a question of the various interests that meet in the health system, whether and in what form or with what emphasis and success ultimately the affected people help with new drugs is offered. In the meantime, there is still a lot of room for self-help. The legally available CBD - whether in the form of oil, capsules, tablets or tinctures - is (still) freely available, so that every epilepsy patient can supplement his treatment. Of course, such proprietary therapies should always consult a knowledgeable physician and be mindful of the good (bio) quality of the CBD product. Anyone who does so, should be justified with a little patience justified hope for improvement. Source: SOMMER, Kathrin. Cannabis im Kampf gegen Epilepsie 29 march 2018. Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/cbd-in-der-medizin/cannabis-im-kampf-gegen-epilepsie Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/   


THC very similar endogenous cannabinoidWhen it comes to cannabis, many people think of kippers and highs first. This high is to be attributed as a intoxicating effect on a single phytocannabinoid. All other phytocannabinoids affect at most this high of the THC, but do not make high on their own. For cannabis and cannabinoids, however, the endocannabinoid system can also be considered. Here, the body's own cannabinoids are released as so-called endocannabinoids. Anandamide was the first endogenous cannabinoid discovered in 1992. It's very similar to the Delta 9 THC. Does our body sting? If you had a sufficient amount of anandamide and would take this, the effect would probably be the effect of THC and thus very similar to the kiffen. Anandamide is derived as the name of the Ananda, which comes from Sanskrit and means "bliss". It is easy to step away, thoughtless and happy. It is a state that allows you to leave the world and all your everyday life side by side and forget about time. When cannabis or its derived cannabinoids are used, they are absorbed via the lungs, the intestines or the mucous membranes and transferred to the blood. With this they reach the whole body and thus work everywhere in the body. However, endogenous cannabinoids are secreted where they bind to the cannabinoid receptors and thereby trigger a reaction. So they work punctually. There have already been attempts to deliver the cannabinoids from outside to a tumor independently of the bloodstream in order to obtain the necessary dose that would not have been achievable by smoking. Since these cannabinoids did not flow through the blood and were not absorbed well into the blood stream, they also had a selective effect. In normal everyday life such a "selective kiffen" would only be possible as external application for skin diseases with special creams. A "high" stays off. arachidonylethanolamideThe full name of anandamide is "arachidonyletanolamide". The molecular formula is C22H37NO2. The molecular formula of Delta-9-THC is C21H30O2. The effect of both molecules is very similar, but they are quite different in the atoms present and especially in their arrangement to each other. In the 3D model, the two molecules would be very similar again. If THC is smoked, the effect lasts a few hours to a maximum of four hours. With anandamide, the effect lasts at most 30 minutes. Both cannabinoids have their effects in different aspects, which can be used as a basis for determining the intensity of effect. Depending on the point of action, the effect of anandamide would be 4 to 20 times weaker. If a very high concentration were achieved, then it could displace the THC from the cannabinoid receptors. Otherwise both cannabinoids work at the same time. Anandamide is found in higher organisms and also in cocoa and chocolate. Of course, the quantities are not enough to create a intoxicating effect here and in the cocoa further active ingredients would influence the effect of anandamide. The discovery of anandamide is attributed to the Czech chemist Lumir Ondrej Janus and the US pharmacologist William Anthony Devande. However, it was also Raphael Mechoulam as a pioneer pioneer of cannabinoid research involved in this discovery. In the year of discovery in 1992, the circle of researchers around the medical mode of action of cannabinoids were even more manageable than in the present. Anandamide in the bodyAs a molecule, anandamide is the ethanolamine derivative of arachidonic acid and is a tetraunsaturated fatty acid. Especially in the central nervous system, the occurrence or concentration is higher. It binds to the CB1 and CB2 receptors as well as to the vanilloid TRPV1 receptor. Striking is the increased interaction of anandamide in brain regions, which are responsible for the perception as well as the processing of thoughts and the movements. Here it will play a special role, so the obvious assumption. Anandamide, like THC, is fat-soluble. It is not the only endogenous cannabinoid discovered. However, it is the endogenous counterpart to THC, even though humans can hardly influence their "dose" here. Anandamide is very likely to be a crucial and irreplaceable endogenous cannabinoid when it comes to achieving well-being. However, this "bliss" already contained in the name of anandamide would only be a mechanism of action. However, the other effects will also allow a sense of well-being, as they help to keep the organism "in the middle" and thus physically and mentally healthy. Source: BRUNGERT, Robert. Anandamid – unser Organismus kifft. 1 [online]. 1n. l., 16 march 2018, 1(1), 1 [cit. 2019-10-25]. Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/anandamid-unser-organismus-kifft/ Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/  

Phytocannabinoids - purely vegetable

Renewable medicine"Phyto" comes from the Greek and means "plant". Cannabinoids are produced in the body, in some plants and also in some chemistry laboratories. The hot "endogenous cannabinoids" produced in the body, from the chemical laboratory "synthetic cannabinoids". There are also semisynthetic or artificial cannabinoids, which find their source material in the plants. The term phytocannabinoids explains that they are cannabinoids of plant origin that have not been artificially altered in their molecular structure. There are well over 100 phytocannabinoids in cannabis alone. In other plants, these are not or only in small numbers and low concentration contained. Who would like to win phytocannabinoids, would therefore decide for the plant genus cannabis. No proven deathsAt a lethal dose death occurs. For drugs of medicine, the lethal dose is determined in order to be able to deal with patients safer. With other substances, too, this lethal dose is being sought in order to be able to better assess it. Depending on the research, THC, one of the most common phytocannabinoids, would require hundreds of grams or even 1,500 pounds of cannabis to reach this lethal dose. These quantities would have to be absorbed within a very short time, which is hardly technically possible. It is conceivable that other phytocannabinoids with far lower concentrations could trigger such a lethal dose. They are also contained in cannabis at a lower concentration. However, the fact is that there is still no valid report on a cannabis death. There are reports of people who allegedly died of cannabis. Some were simply found no causes of death, but traces of THC, which then this "the cause of death" was. However, assumptions or insinuations are not valid evidence. With synthetic cannabinoids, even small amounts of active substance can trigger a lethal dose or leave lasting damage, which means that they should be regarded as a substance class with much greater care. Unfortunately, there are now hundreds, perhaps thousands, of people worldwide who have already died of synthetic cannabinoids. With a regulated cannabis market that allows adults to buy or grow their cannabis in good quality at acceptable prices, hardly any synthetic cannabinoids would be used. The research on phytocannabinoidsEven though more than 100 phytocannabinoids have been found in cannabis, research is still in its infancy. Just cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol are reasonably well researched. However, many cannabinoids that may have high medical potential have been virtually undetected. There are e.g. Phytocannabinoids in the hemp plant, which are found in the immature flowers or immature plants, but no longer in the mature. These cannabinoids can also have a very high medical potential. Since plants are currently allowed to mature for cannabis production, the cannabinoids on immature plants have not been much researched. But many other phytocannabinoids, which are not always or only in trace amounts in cannabis, have not received much attention yet. In many cases, it is assumed that only the female cannabis plant forms active substances and can be used medically. That's not true, even the male or hermaphrodite cannabis plant forms phytocannabinoids and other active ingredients. However, it forms smaller amounts of these drugs. But maybe there are active ingredients in male cannabis plants that are not found in females? If even the cannabis plant's roots, stems and leaves contain active ingredients and can be used medicinally independently of the cannabis flowers, cannabinoid research certainly does not address the issues. Source: BRUNGERT, Robert. Phytocannabinoide – rein pflanzlich. 23 march 2018,. Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/phytocannabinoide-rein-pflanzlich/ Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

Regular pain: CBD helps

CBD relaxes and relieves crampsWhile most of the average 28-day cycle is relatively calm and normal, the uterine muscles begin to contract just before the menstrual period. These contractions interrupt blood flow in the abdomen. It is precisely this interruption that causes more pain in one woman and less pain in the other. Happy are those who do not suffer at all. In some girls and women, however, the pain is so unbearable that they therefore even fail in everyday life, so must report to the employer sick or can not go to sports. In Germany, therefore, many patients resort to analgesics such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen. Others prefer to take antispasmodic drugs from the pharmacy. However, this is more of a permanent solution with two eyes closed, as this type of medication has negative effects on the body. For example, they strain the kidneys when taken regularly. Some pain sufferers now stick electrodes instead to the skin. By light surges, the muscles should relax and provide relief. While some swear by it, others complain about the annoying feeling of having to walk around the bikini area with electrode stickers, where one can not move quite as freely during the days anyway. Often, young women are prescribed the pill to prevent the unpleasant side effects of menstruation. However, it is artificially intervened in the hormone balance to prevent ovulation. The cannabinoid CBD is according to the current state of research free of side effects. It naturally acts on the human endocannabinoid system. This expands throughout the body and even produces various cannabinoids to keep the immune system intact. However, this system is prone to disorders such as illness and stress - the latter is also caused by pain. By administering CBD in the form of oil or capsules, the inner balance can be restored. CBD has a relaxing, anti-spasmodic and anti-inflammatory effect. For menstrual problems, it is therefore a good treatment option. Since it contains virtually no THC and therefore does not have an intoxicating effect, women who suffer from period pain can obtain CBD legally and without a prescription. Different types of menstrual pain and their causes The female cycle is determined by different hormones. The goal is to prepare the body for possible reproduction. Therefore, the uterine lining builds up in the first half of the cycle. It is well supplied with blood and thick or short: ready for the implantation of the fertilized egg. However, if there is no fertilization and thus no pregnancy, the mucosa dissolves in the second half of the cycle after ovulation from the uterus. The excretion takes place during the period. After the menstrual period, the circulation starts again, so the menstrual pain occurs every month again. Generally, a distinction is made between primary and secondary menstrual pain. The primary menstrual pain falls into the category of "natural", which is pain that occurs during the menstrual period, without any pathological change in the female body. The women who suffer from primary periodic pain have been fighting this problem since puberty. Secondary menstrual pain primarily affects older women and is mostly due to illness. Changes in the female reproductive system often cause painful days. Such changes include, for example, endometriosis (small, benign growths in the abdomen), uterine infections, and ovarian cysts. Frequently by these diseases not only the intensity of bleeding increases, but also pain. In general, there are various factors, besides malformations or diseases, which can aggravate menstrual pain. These include a low body weight, an irregular or longer than average cycle, the consumption of alcohol and nicotine, the prevention of pregnancy with the help of the spiral, stress or other psychological causes. Symptoms of menstrual painMany readers know her too well - the typical symptoms of menstrual cramps: cramping and tearing in the abdomen. The pain can follow at short intervals, be regular or prolonged, and can be up to the back. Often, digestion is also affected during the period, so some women suffer from diarrhea or nausea. Even headaches can be part of the discomfort. Anyone who is in constant pain and uncomfortable will eventually get into a bad mood. In addition, fatigue, fatigue and lower concentration or performance are added to this. Many women would therefore just like to lie in the hot tub or with a hot water bottle on the stomach on the couch and wait for the first two, so the worst days, pass as quickly as possible. Different forms of CBD for menstrual pain Not only hot baths and hot water bottles relax the cramped uterus, but also sex. But after a suitable partner is not always and everywhere available and women can not spend hours in the bathroom, it makes sense to relax the body in other ways. CBD has anti-spasmodic properties, reduces stress and relaxes, and therefore relieves menstrual pain. Already Queen Victoria's doctor, Sir Joshua Reynolds, knew about the beneficial effects of the cannabis plant and ordered the majesty a suitable cannabis tincture against her menstrual pain. Women in Asia and Africa have also been relying on natural pain relief from cannabis products for centuries. In our society, the use and research of cannabinoids has long been neglected by the illegalization of the hemp plant. However, countries such as the US and Canada are now turning around and the research and production of various cannabis products is evidently progressing inexorably. Europe is slowly catching up. The US actress Whoopi Goldberg has recognized the trend and together with the food manufacturer Maya Elisabeth sells medical cannabis products under the name "whoopi & maya", which are tailored to women with regular pains. In addition to cannabis tinctures and ointments, the ladies also offer a bath additive and chocolate with the corresponding active ingredients. In liberal California and the US state of Colorado, pain-stricken women enjoy the so-called cannabis tampons, which are marketed under the name of Foria Relief. Actually, this product is not really a tampon, but a suppository, which is introduced before using a tampon. Within 15 to 30 minutes, the suppository dissolves, so that the active ingredients are absorbed by the vaginal mucosa. In Germany, the suppositories are not yet available because they contain besides ten milligrams of legal CBD also 60 milligrams of psychoactive THC. Many women reported having a relaxing effect and pain relief after about eight minutes. The THC can be detected by the usual drug tests in the body. Medically sound studies on Foria Relief are pending. We also have medical cannabis products on prescription from the pharmacy. These are mainly used in palliative medicine. In menstrual pain, it would be extremely difficult to find a doctor and a health insurance company who would participate in a prescription. The legal alternative is CBD. In the form of oil, you can either take cannabidiol orally or drip one or two drops on a tampon to make it easier to get it right where it's needed. Instructions for buying CBD productsTo minimize the unwanted ingestion of any pollutants, attention should be paid to the bio-seal when purchasing CBD products. Oils should contain at least 99 percent pure CBD. When manufacturing, it is important to keep an eye on ensuring that the products are as close as possible to the GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice for Medicines) and ISO standards so that they are of a certain quality. Court decision regarding cannabis use against menstrual painAt this point the readers should not be deprived of the court order of 4 January 2017 from Baden-Württemberg: A woman who regularly consumed cannabis for six to seven days a month - the intoxicating THC variant, not the pure CBD - wanted to deprive the driving license authority of their driving license. In an urgent procedure, however, the Freiburg administrative court ruled that the woman was allowed to keep her driver's license for the time being. The reasoning was that the person concerned would firstly have not combined consumption and driving, and secondly, they would not take cannabis regularly. Even if the consumption was monthly over several days, the woman did not take THC-containing products on the menstruation-free days and therefore did not fulfill the conditions necessary for a driving license withdrawal.The decision may be understood as a positive sign in the direction of cannabis for pain relief. Source: SOMMER, Kathryn. Regelschmerzen: CBD schafft Abhilfe. 21 Feb, 2018 Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/cbd-in-der-medizin/regelschmerzen-cbd-schafft-abhilfe/ Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

CBD as a versatile remedy in sports

But not only in medicine promises CBD new treatment options. The properties of cannabidiol can be used, for example, for faster regeneration or performance enhancement in sport. Prominent examples from the US could establish CBD as a supplement and remedy in sport. What is cannabidiol?Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of over several hundred cannabinoids in the hemp plant and the second best known besides THC. Especially medical users became aware of the therapeutic properties of CBD. CBD has no psychoactive effect and can even mitigate the high produced by THC. Nowadays you can find varieties on the market, which were bred especially for their high CBD content and more and more seed banks jump on the CBD train. With their Super Silver Haze CBD, Greenhouse Seed Company released a popular CBD version of the popular classic with a THC: CBD ratio of 1: 1. In addition, the breeders of CBD crew inspired many patients with their variety CBD Therapy, which has a THC: CBD ratio of 1:20 (!) And thus has a particularly high medical potential. However, CBD can not only be consumed in the form of flowers. Many manufacturers offer CBD oils in different dosages or creams with CBD from organically grown hemp plants. A very pure form of cannabinoid is CBD crystals, a white powder produced by extraction with CO2.  CBD in sportsAs already mentioned, CBD has a very high medical potential, which can also be used profitably in sport. Many hobby and competitive athletes report that CBD increases their focus when taken before a training session and thus they can achieve better performance. The stress-relieving effect of CBD can increase mental performance, thus making exercises or units more accurate. This reduces the risk of injury and over-exertion. Excessive physical stress often causes muscle pain or painful muscle tension. CBD binds, inter alia, to the TRPV-1 receptor, which is responsible for pain perception, inflammation and the regulation of temperature. As a result, CBD can relieve pain such as muscle soreness or tension to get fit for the next session. In addition, cannabidiol stimulates the adenosine receptor and therefore plays an important role in cardiovascular function and blood circulation. Thus, we have arrived at another huge advantage of CBD in the application in the sport. Namely the faster regeneration. The relaxing effect can serve as Muskelrelachsans and shorten the recovery phase between training sessions. By stimulating the blood flow, the muscles are supplied with more oxygen again and can be more stressed or recover better. Even nausea after a hard workout can be treated with cannabidiol. Prominent examples from the USAAbove all, professional top athletes are under constant stress from training and competitions and expose their bodies to extreme stress. Not infrequently a serious injury is the result of a auspicious career. Not to mention the huge sums of money used in professional sports. In the American Fottballliga NFL one has therefore always resorted to strong painkillers such as Percocet and Vicodin, to suppress the pain of an injury. Not infrequently complain players after taking on stomach ache, nausea and / or fatigue. Not to mention the danger of dependence, which is almost inevitable with such strong resources and regular intake. Former quarterback Jake Plummer is now campaigning for allowable use of CBD for recreational purposes in the NFL. With the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect cannabidiol is the natural alternative to strong (prescription) analgesics and no side effects or the risk to become dependent. According to a 2011 Washington University study in St. Louis, 52% of retired NFL players resorted to opiates during their careers. This means more than half of the pharmaceutical industry's former professionals fall victim in the US. It is estimated that at least 50% of NFL active players defend themselves against the abuse of potent painkillers and treat themselves with some form of cannabis as a medicine. In the American Basketball League (NBA), it even estimated an 80%. At least some of the players seem to have understood the problem and are switching to the natural alternative. Also in other sports the positive effects of CBD seem to have spread. Last year, UFC fighter Nate Diaz appeared at a press conference after a fight with a vaporizer. When asked about this, Diaz explained that it is cannabidiol and continues: "It helps against pain and inflammation and supports the healing process. It makes your life a better place. " Application of CBDCBD can not only be consumed in the form of flowers. There are CBD oils with different concentrations, CBD creams for application on the skin or the already mentioned CBD crystals. Either way, CBD not only has the potential for professional athletes to relieve pain after hard physical exertion and is THE natural alternative to strong painkillers that have a lot of side effects and the risk of dependency. It remains to be seen what will emerge in the future in this area, but with advancing useful research and prominent representatives, this wonderful plant may soon be used in sport as an effective means of relieving pain and increasing performance. Source: BOEDEFELD, Christian. CBD als vielseitig einsetzbares Heilmittel im Sport.. Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/cbd-in-der-medizin/cbd-als-vielseitig-einsetzbares-heilmittel-im-sport/ Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

The endocannabinoid system: How THC works in the body

The beginningsModern cannabinoid research, which began about 50 years ago, was initially initiated to understand the effect of an illicit drug. After the chemistry of the plant and the pharmacological and psychological effects of THC were at least partially understood in the 60s and 70s, the field of research changed. From the mid-80s, research into the mode of action of THC and other cannabinoids in the hemp plant in the body and thus the discovery of the endocannabinoid system began. It soon became clear that this body's regulatory system is involved in many bodily functions.In 1964, the complete elucidation of the chemical structure of the delta-9-THC of the hemp plant was achieved. Approximately 30 years later, the first endogenous cannabinoids were discovered, arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA) in 1992, and arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in 1995. Since then, research on the effects of endocannabinoids on human health and disease has become more widespread.Endocannabinoid receptorsIn 1987, an American research group was able to show that there are specific binding sites in the brain for THC. Their distribution in the brain is consistent with the pharmacological properties of THC and other (synthetic) cannabinoids that cause psychic effects. In 1990, it was finally possible to decode the chemical structure of the first cannabinoid receptor in the brain. A short time later, a second cannabinoid receptor was detected in the spleen.The cannabinoid-1 receptorOriginally it had been thought that the CB1 receptor (cannabinoid-1 receptor) was found only in the central nervous system, so it was considered a brain cannabinoid receptor. However, it occurs in many organs. The CB1 receptor is one of the most common receptors in the brain. The highest concentrations are found, among others, in the basal ganglia of the brain, which play a role in the coordination of movements, or in the hippocampus, which is important for the conversion of short-term information into long-term memory contents or for spatial orientation. CB1 receptors are found in many regions that play an important role in sensory perception (taste, smell, touch, hearing), mental performance, and motivation. For example, when CB1 receptors in the brain are activated by THC, sensory perception increases. In this way, the taste and smell of food and listening to music intensifies.In contrast, there are no CB1 receptors in the brainstem responsible, inter alia, for the control of respiration and the cardiovascular system. Today it is assumed that there are no deaths from overdose of cannabis or THC in healthy persons, because the functions of the brainstem can not be significantly affected by such an overdose.The protective function of the CB1 receptorCannabinoid 1 receptors are located at the end of nerve cells, where a signal is passed through the gap between two nerve cells from one nerve cell to another. The most important function of the CB1 receptors in the nervous system is the inhibition of excessive signal transmission by messenger substances in the brain, so-called neurotransmitters. Activation of CB1 receptors inhibits overactivity of all neurotransmitters in the brain (glutamate, serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, etc.). Thus, the endocannabinoid system has multiple protective functions against over-excitement in the central nervous system and helps to balance the activity of the brain. This explains the broad spectrum of action of THC or cannabis. When THC binds to CB1 receptors, too much activity is inhibited in the pain control circuits of the brain, thereby relieving pain. If neurotransmitter activity is too high in regions responsible for nausea and vomiting, activation of the CB1 receptor may reduce this increased activity. By similar mechanisms, muscle spasticity, epileptic seizures, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, hyperactivity and other disease symptoms are attenuated by activation of the endocannabinoid system.The cannabinoid 2 receptorOriginally it was thought that CB2 receptors only occur in the immune system outside the brain. However, they were eventually detected throughout the central nervous system, especially in microglial cells, albeit at a lower concentration than CB1 receptors. Microglial cells are crucial for brain immune defense.The body of humans and other mammals has a highly developed immune system that protects it from attack by viruses, bacteria and other potentially harmful external influences and aims to prevent, mitigate and repair the damage. The endocannabinoid system is part of this protective mechanism via its CB2 receptors.Endogenous cannabinoidsThe discovery of cannabinoid receptors suggested that there are endogenous substances that bind to these receptors. In fact, such an endocannabinoid was first detected in 1992. Its discoverers called it anandamide from the Sanskrit word "Ananda" for bliss and "amide" because of its chemical structure. In 1995, a second endocannabinoid, 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol) was discovered. These two endocannabinoids are best researched so far. Today it is assumed that about 200 substances that resemble the discovered endocannabinoids in their chemical structure.Unlike most messenger substances (neurotransmitters) in the brain, they are not produced by the nerve cell, which transmits a signal to another nerve cell, but by the nerve cell that receives the signal. If the signal, ie the concentration of the neurotransmitters, is too large, endocannabinoids are increasingly formed which, via the activation of CB1 receptors, reduce this excessive neurotransmitter activity.Different endocannabinoids can bind not only to cannabinoid receptors, but also to a putative CB3 receptor, the GPR55 receptor, vanilloid receptors, and other receptors.Proteins for the formation and degradation of end cannabinoidsThe proteins responsible for the synthesis of endocannabinoids have so-called N-acyltransferase (NAT), N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase (NAPE-PLD) or diaclglycirollipase (DAGL). The most important protein for the degradation of anandamide is fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and for the degradation of 2-AG monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL).Functions of the endocannabinoid system in the brainThe endocannabinoid system plays a role in the brain in anxiety and depression, in the regeneration of nerve cells, and it affects the reward system of the brain. It affects our mental capacity, ability to learn and memory. In this context, the eradication of unpleasant experiences by the endocannabinoid system is utilized in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. The effects of endocannabinoids in the brain are mainly mediated via CB1 receptors, but also in part via CB2 receptors on glial cells.Many studies show that activators of the CB1 receptor, such as THC, affect short-term memory. This effect can be prevented by high doses of CBD.Interestingly, however, memory loss could be reduced with age by activating the endocannabinoid system. For example, mice lacking CB1 receptors showed accelerated age-related mental performance deficits. They also lost important nerve cells in the hippocampus, which was accompanied by inflammation of the nerve cells. These findings suggest that CB1 receptors in the hippocampus may protect against age-related decline in mental performance.conclusionThe endocannabinoid system, with its endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors, and proteins responsible for the formation and degradation of endocannabinoids such as anandamide and 2-AG, has central biological functions in the central nervous system and in many other organs. Disruptions to the normal functioning of this system can lead to corresponding disorders of organ function. In diseases, a specific effect on the endocannabinoid system may be useful, for example, by inhibiting the degradation of endocannabinoids or by the administration of herbal cannabinoids such as THC.There is also evidence that certain diseases such as migraine, epilepsy or irritable bowel syndrome are associated with reduced activity of the endocannabinoid system. One speaks of Endocannabinoidmangel illnesses. The ingestion of plant cannabinoids might then compensate for this decreased activity. Source: GROTENHERMEN, Dr. Franjo. Das Endocannabinoidsystem: Wie THC seine Wirkung im Körper ausübt.15 Aug, 2016,Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/thc/das-endocannabinoidsystem-wie-thc-seine-wirkung-im-koerper-ausuebt Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/ 

Cannabis products for external use

We now know that the use of cannabis has health benefits. We can treat bowel disease with cannabis, fight colon cancer or relieve spasmodic symptoms. In addition, the effect of cannabis is also applicable to a great many other ailments, but the effects have not been completely investigated. Whether one eventually smokes or otherwise consumes the grass is up to the consumer.If you do not want to smoke, you can inject it through the skin, in the form of oil, through the food, or in finished foods. The possibilities are more or less open to us. A first step has already been taken with the legalization by prescription, even if it is only really recognized and serious diseases. The normal migraine patient will hardly get legal cannabis. That's a pity, but maybe that will change. Today, however, we are enriching ourselves with yet another effect of cannabis, namely the positive effects on our skin. The products are largely legally available.Effectiveness of THC and CBD confirmedClinical trials and numerous laboratory tests have now confirmed the efficacy of cannabis ingredients. It was investigated to what extent cannabis products can help against skin redness, inflammation, psoriasis, open wounds, acne or other skin diseases. Of course, the cannabis does not need to be smoked, but can be purchased legally in lotions, balms, oils or patches. We are looking forward to a product test in this regard and hope to be able to say more about exact products soon.Actually, people knew back in antiquity that cannabis and certain plant components help against skin diseases. For this reason, cannabis was mixed with other plants, herbs or animal extracts and prepared ointments. In today's laboratory tests, the effect was confirmed, because the cannabinoids increase the biochemical defenses of the skin. Unfortunately, we can not say much about exactly how cannabinoids do this and stimulate the healing process, because unfortunately research is not yet far enough. But the fact is that it helps and acts against a disease infestation of the skin.Acne and skin irritations - effects and resultsCannabinoids can reduce and even completely combat inflammation in the skin's sebaceous glands. Skin glands ensure that the skin is coated with sufficient natural fats. If the glands produce too much sebum, skin disorders or acne often occur. Cannabinoids have been proven to help against acne, eczema and other skin disorders. And again it was the mice that proved these theories. However, it is not just the cannabinoids that are good for our skin. The extracts of cannabis seeds, for example, reduced skin redness of subjects. These seeds contain proteins, oils and antioxidants to help against pimples.Skin care products are experiencing an upswingCannabis-enriched lotions are increasingly being sold and more and more people are experiencing the beneficial effects. Balsams, oils, gels or transdermal patches containing CBD, THC or terpene can be purchased. The cannabis preparations contain various substances, so that the skin can absorb the essential ingredients well. For example, the creams contain certain herbs to actively ensure intake. The products can be applied directly to the inflamed area and locally controlled.Will not you get high on it?No, because the ointments do not reach the bloodstream or the nervous system, whereby no high-effect can be experienced. The contained cannabinoids can bind with the CB2 receptors and act on the peripheral level.-> If you like, you can make your own CBD ointment yourself. All you need is cutaways, stalks and a few small buds. These are enriched with coconut oil and beeswax. We will work out a more exact recipe and of course publish it. Dermatitis and psoriasis are the perfect areas of application and you will see fast results. But even with sore muscles or against arthritis and for other pain relief help the homemade ointments.Patients and doctors should go new waysThe experiences of physicians and patients are becoming more and more frequent and also various official studies are proving more and more the positive effects on different processes. Relieving skin problems could be a breakthrough for cannabis products. In the US, various cannabis products are already being used to relieve symptoms such as fibromyalgia, ALS, sunburn, open wounds or migraine. The modes of action are antibacterial and anti-inflammatory, the properties of cannabis there are widely recognized. What works there can not be wrong here, right?Found a new drug?Now another active substance is to be held responsible for the positive effects on our organism, namely the so-called CBG. An active ingredient that can help against acne and skin aging.Of course, we must point out here that cannabis is not a panacea and you should always discuss your treatment with a doctor. At least you could ask in advance if self treatment with various cannabis products makes sense. Source: DIRSCHL, Jenny. Cannabisprodukte zur äußeren Anwendung. 17 feb, 2017. Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabinoide/thc/cannabisprodukte-zur-aeusseren-anwendung/Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

Cannabis use increases the chances of survival after a heart attack

The heart attack, also called myocardial infarction, is one of the leading causes of death in Germany. Without treatment, it always leads to death, so quick action is vital. The cause is a sudden occlusion of the coronary arteries. The heart muscle is then no longer supplied with blood, the heart can even stop beating.As a result, it can happen that the heart muscle dies. If a treatment is late, it may be that partial death of the heart muscle cells leads to the fact that the pumping function of the heart and its resilience is limited in the long term. The worst symptoms are acute chest pain and dread. Cannabis may not save a person from a heart attack, but consumption seems to have a positive effect on survival rates following infarction.A particular risk factor: Many cannabis users also use tobaccoThe National Inpatient Sample database includes data from thousands of patients who have been admitted to clinics in the United States. For one study, the data from more than 161,000 patients hospitalized for a heart attack were analyzed. Of these, 4224 indicated that they consume cannabis, 78.3 percent of the consumers were male, 21.7 percent were female. 71 percent of cannibis users also smoked tobacco, compared with only 49 percent of non-consumers. Tobacco smoke is one of the largest cardiovascular risk factors. Nevertheless, on average, consumers reported better health developments during hospitalization.Despite tobacco smoke, cannabis users recovered faster after a heart attackThe researchers explain the better recovery of cannabis users through both mental and physical factors. For example, increased consumer relaxation could improve blood flow to the heart, which could counteract cardiomyocyte death. The psychological handling of the hospital stay could have something to do with it. A positive mood always supports the physical recovery through physiological reactions to the mental state.Cannabis use makes hospitalization shorter and cheaperOverall, analysis of NIS data showed that cannabis users are more likely to recover from their heart attack than non-users. With an average of 4.2 days, they had a shorter hospital stay, ie non-consumers, who had to spend an average of 4.8 days in the hospital. Incidentally, they also cause lower costs to the healthcare system, $ 43,800 for the stay compared to $ 50,900 for patients who do not consume cannabis. In addition, the likelihood of death during hospitalization is six times lower among consumers.Can cannabis be used for cardiac patients?The need for further studies is beyond doubt with the results of the NIS data collection. With other evidence pointing to the benefits of cannabis for the health and function of the heart, more in-depth research might one day capture the context and make cannabis targeted for cardiac patients. Since the results of the analyzes are largely based on long-term consumers, a general legalization of cannabis, both medically and as a stimulant, would be a public health benefit.Source:GLASMANN, Dieter Klaus. Cannabiskonsum erhöht die Überlebenschancen nach einem Herzinfarkt., 22 Sep, 2019,Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabismedizin-allgemein/cannabiskonsum-erhoeht-die-ueberlebenschancen-nach-einem-herzinfarkt/Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/

CBD (cannabidiol) in ancient Egypt

Often, cannabidiol is reported as a new phenomenon. Due to the growing cultural acceptance of the hemp plant, CBD has experienced a tremendous increase in popularity over the last decade. In fact, the cannabinoid was used much earlier by one of the Earth's oldest civilizations - Ancient Egypt.Cannabidiol - a wonder drug?CBD is a phytocannabinoid - a natural, plant-produced compound. In this case, the compound comes from the hemp plant. In 1964, the Israeli scientist Dr. Raphael Mechoulam the psychoactive substance THC. The now 88-year-old Professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Natural Products at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem is recognized as one of the most important researchers in cannabis research by discovering the most important ingredients of the cannabis plant. In addition, it has played a significant role in Israel's pioneering role in researching the therapeutic properties of cannabinoids and in medical applications.For example, by altering the concentration of neurotransmitters in the brain, the effect of cannabidiol can affect pain, contribute to relaxation, or help with sleep problems. There are reports of the anti-inflammatory effect of topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis.originCBD is made from the hemp plant that has been cultivated by humans for thousands of years for its versatile fibers, seeds and flowers. The oldest finds come from China around 2800 BC. Chr., Where one manufactured ropes from hemp fibers.Presumably, however, the plant has been used earlier and there is evidence of its use in traditional Chinese medicine, which continues to decline. Over time, the hemp plant in the paper, textile, food and medical industries became more important worldwide, until the cultivation of hemp was taxed so heavily in the US in 1937 with the Marijuana Tax Act that it was barely affordable for farmers more rewarded.Holy hempSeshat was an ancient Egyptian deity of wisdom, writing and knowledge. She was seen as a writer and mathematician. The deity depicted as a woman often wore a panther skin a staff and a headband, over which a green star is depicted, which many researchers interpret as hemp bloom.The Ebers Papyrus is a medical script from Ancient Egypt. It is one of the oldest surviving texts and contains texts on medical topics with a wide range of descriptions of diseases and their symptoms and diagnoses. In addition, the papyrus contains tips for the treatment of various ailments and the preparation of remedies.The uses of cannabis for medical purposes recorded there date from 1700 BC. Various texts describe the application and preparation of several cannabis recipes. Thus, tinctures of cannabis and other herbs and plants to help with glaucoma, relieve nail problems or help in the form of vaginal suppositories from cannabis and honey at birth. Also in the coffins of mummies researchers found remains of the hemp plant, which were given to the person as an important tool on the journey.Cannabis from EgyptWhen Napoleon besieged Egypt during the Egyptian expedition from 1798 to 1801, French soldiers came into contact with hashish. It is believed that they took the hashish to Europe, which made it well known and appreciated.Although cannabis is illegal in Egypt and consumption and cultivation are severely punished, the historical significance and use of beneficial and medicinal plants suggest that hemp has played an important role in ancient Egypt. Perhaps the increasing research into medicinal properties can help bring hemp back to the center of society.Source: BOEDEFELD, Christian. CBD (Cannabidiol) im alten Ägypten.28 Mai, 2019. Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabismedizin-allgemein/cbd-cannabidiol-im-alten-aegypten/ Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/   

Can cannabis protect the liver from alcohol damage?

This is a medical recommendation for the use of alcohol. By regularly exceeding this daily dose serious health consequences are threatened because alcohol is toxic to the liver cells. Excessive consumption causes the liver to become inflamed, tissue scarred, and dangerous cirrhosis can be the result, as well as high blood pressure, strokes, liver disease and liver cancer.Is the combination of alcohol and cannabis more dangerous than the individual substances?Recently, scientists from the University of Massachusetts Medical School and the INRS Armand-Frappier Research Center, led by Drs. Terence Bukong on the effects of long-term mixed cannabis and alcohol use on the liver. The 2018 study included studies in about 320,000 people who had a longer history of both substances. And although one would think that combined consumption would necessarily increase the negative consequences for the body, the results of the investigations show that it is surprisingly different in this case.Cannabinoids like CBD inhibit the cause of liver diseaseBukong and his team found that in people who consume both alcohol and cannabis, the risk of alcohol-related liver disease is lower. And the more cannabis people consume, the stronger this effect is. The researchers explain these amazing results with the anti-inflammatory effect that cannabis, and especially cannabidiol (CBD) has. Older studies suggest that cannabinoid receptors in the liver are able to prevent or treat liver disease. The activation of these receptors by cannabis reduces the inflammation of the liver cells at an early stage. This slows down the progressive damage caused by alcohol.The research on the mixed consumption of alcohol and cannabis goes into the next roundDr. However, Bukong warns against understanding the research findings as an invitation to excessive mixed drinking. Because many historical data were collected through interviews, there is no information on the quality and drug concentration of cannabis that the participants consumed at that time. So far, there are no clinical studies that have tracked the effects of mixed consumption virtually in real time. Bukong's research group is already working to find out which cannabinoids and combinations of cannabinoids have the best medical effect on liver disease.Coffee and cannabis prevent scarring in liver tissueDespite all precaution and caution, as a result of their research, researchers find that cannabis users are less likely to suffer from alcohol-related liver damage, the least to long-term consumers. Also good for preventing scarring in the tissues of the liver should be drinking two to three cups of black coffee per day. Why this is so, has not been explored until today. Source:KLAUS GLASMANN, Dieter. Kann Cannabis die Leber vor Alkohol-Schäden schützen? 28 Mai, 2019. Dostupné z: https://www.hanf-magazin.com/medizin/cannabismedizin-allgemein/kann-cannabis-die-leber-vor-alkohol-schaden-schuetzen/Source photo: https://pixabay.com/cs/